Nowadays, schizophrenia is treated with atypical antipsychotics that can determine neuroleptic malignant syndrome or rhabdomyolysis appearance. In addition to trauma and muscular hypoxia, there are some drugs and toxins associated with rhabdomyolysis development, among which olanzapine. A case of severe rhabdomyolysis syndrome, with extremely high levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), followed by acute kidney failure, secondary to olanzapine overdose and prolonged immobilization is outlined. Continuous renal replacement therapy was performed, with a slow clearance of serum CK levels. Under supportive therapy, systemic alkalinisation with volume resuscitation and corticotherapy, patient’s general condition was improved, as well as his lower limb paresis. He followed frequent psychiatric evaluations and psychotherapies, before and after being transferred to a medical service. Rhabdomyolysis diagnosis is difficult in mild cases due to non-specific signs and symptoms, but it also has some typical manifestation, generically called “the rhabdomyolysis syndrome triad”. The treatment is usually supportive; renal replacement therapy is required in the presence of acute kidney injury unresponsive to aggressive volume resuscitation. The systemic myoglobin release is responsible for renal injury. Olanzapine muscle toxicity can lead to severe rhabdomyolysis syndrome complicated with acute kidney injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Rapid identification and aggressive therapeutic management are essential for improving patients’ outcome and prevent the occurrence of irreversible injuries.
The novel coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID – 19) evolved as an unprecedented pandemic. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with significantly deranged coagulation parameters and increased incidence of thrombotic events. Deranged coagulation parameters, such as D-dimers and fibrin degradation products, can indicate a poor prognosis, and their measurement will help stratify the patients according to the disease severity, need of intensive care unit admission, and prediction of the clinical course. Gaps in understanding the natural history of the disease cause difficulties in tailoring therapies and optimizing the management of patients. Lack of specific treatment further complicates this situation. While thrombotic events can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients, a focused approach to the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) can, to a great extent, decrease the disease burden caused by thrombotic diseases. Pharmacological prophylactic anticoagulants and mechanical therapies such as pneumatic compression devices can help prevent venous thromboembolism and other thrombotic events. Thrombotic events due to COVID-19, their prevention and management, are the focus of this paper, with the prospect of providing insights into this relatively unexplored area.
Introduction: In acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) explosive proliferation and accumulation of immature myeloid cell clones take place, replacing the bone marrow, with the possibility of the formation of extramedullary tumour masses composed of myeloid cells. The onset of the disease less frequently consists of symptoms of extramedullary manifestation.
Case presentation: A Caucasian male child aged three years and 11 months was hospitalized for bilateral exophthalmos and otorrhea, due to an alteration in his general condition. Ocular ultrasound revealed an inhomogeneous thickening of the upper right muscles superior to the eyeball. A complete blood count showed severe anaemia, leucocytosis with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. A peripheral blood smear evidenced myeloblasts. The result of the cytology of bone marrow confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Following blood product replacements and cytostatic treatment (AML-BFM 2004 HR protocol), the remission of exophthalmos and the correction of haematological parameters were favourable.
Conclusion: In a child with a sudden onset of exophthalmia and altered general condition, the diagnosis of acute leukaemia should be considered. The importance of performing a peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination is emphasized so that diagnosis and initiation of treatment are not delayed.
Background: Vasopressors are conventionally administered through a central venous catheter (CVC) and not through a peripheral venous catheter (PVC) since the latter is believed to be associated with increased risk of extravasation. Placement of a CVC requires suitably trained personnel to be on hand, and in resource-limited settings, this requirement may delay placement. Because of this and in cases where suitably trained personnel are not immediately available, some clinicians may be prompted to utilise a PVC for infusing vasopressors. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and safety of vasopressors administered through a PVC.
Materials and methods: Patients who received vasopressors through a PVC for more than one hour were included in a single centre, consecutive patient observational study. Patients with a CVC at the time of initiation of vasopressors were excluded. Data regarding the size, location of PVCs, dose, duration and number of vasopressors infused were recorded. The decision to place CVC was left to the discretion of the treating physician. Extravasation incidents, severity and management of such events were recorded.
Results: One hundred twenty-two patients age 55(4) years [mean (SD)] were included in the study. The commonest PVC was of 18G calibre (57%), and the most common site of placement was the external jugular vein (36.5%). Noradrenaline was the most common vasopressor used at a dose of 10.6 (7) mcg/min [mean (SD)] and the median duration of nine hours (IQR: 6-14). CVC was placed most commonly due to an increasing dose of vasopressors after 4.5(4) hours [mean (SD)]. Grade 2 Extravasation injury occurred in one patient after prolonged infusion of fifty-two hours, through a small calibre (20G) PVC, which was managed conservatively without any sequelae.
Conclusion: Vasopressors infused through a PVC of 18G or larger calibre into the external jugular, or a forearm vein is feasible and safe. Clinicians need to balance the safety of peripheral vasopressor infusion with the additional costs and complications associated with CVC in resource-limited settings.
Intra-cardiac thrombosis is one of the most devastating complications during liver transplantation. In the majority of cases, ICT, followed by massive pulmonary embolism, is commonly occurring shortly after liver graft reperfusion, but it has been reported to occur at any stage of the surgery. We present a series of 3 cases of intra-cardiac thrombosis during orthotopic liver transplantation surgery, including a case of four-chamber intra-cardiac clot formation during the pre-anhepatic stage. This article represents a single-centre 14 year-long experience. Intra-operative TEE is the gold standard to diagnose intra-cardiac thrombosis, monitoring its size, location and dynamics, as well as myocardial performance and the effects of resuscitation efforts.
Background: The study aimed to investigate the changes in nosocomial infection density after patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a new-build hospital.
Methods: The types and rates of nosocomial infections were obtained for a one-year period retrospectively before leaving the old hospital premises and for a one-year periods after moving into the new hospital. The intensive care unit in the “old” premises was comprised of a 17-bedded hall, and thirty-three nurses shifted to work forty-eight hours a week, with each nurse assigned to provide care for two patients. The intensive care unit in the “new” premises consisted of single rooms, each with twenty-eight beds.
Results: The median nosocomial infection density decreased from 23 to 15 per 1000 in-patient days. The catheter-related urinary tract infection rate decreased from 7.5 to 2.6 per100 catheter days.
Conclusions: Treatment of patients in the new hospital resulted in a decrease in nosocomial infection density.
The development of modern medicine has imposed a new approach both in anaesthesiology and in intensive care. This is the reason why, in the last decades, more and more devices and life-support techniques were improved in order to achieve the highest medical outcomes.
Key features of the critically ill patient are severe respiratory, cardiovascular or neurological derangements, often in combination, reflected in abnormal physiological observations. All these changes converge towards the establishment of pulmonary or extrapulmonary respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilatory support. In the current conception, mechanical ventilation does not represent a curative method for respiratory pathology, however, it represents a bridge therapy ensuring the rest and preservation of respiratory muscles, improves gas exchange and assists in maintaining a normal pH until the recovery of the patient .
Despite decades of research, there are limited therapeutic options directed towards the underlying pathological processes and supportive care with mechanical ventilation remaining the cornerstone of patient management. [More]
Introduction: Pediatric delirium is a significant problem when encounterd in an intensive care unit (ICU). The pathophysiology of pediatric delirium is complex and the etiology is typically multifactorial. Even though various risk factors associated with pediatric delirium in a pediatric ICU have been identified, there is still a paucity of literature associated with the condition, especially in extremely critically ill children, sedated and mechanically ventilated. Aim of the study: To identify factors associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated children in an ICU.
Material and Methods: This is a single-center study conducted at a tertiary care pediatric ICU. Patients admitted to the pediatric ICU requiring sedation and mechanical ventilation for >48 hours were included. Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium scale was used to screen patients with delirium. Baseline demographic and clinical factors as well as daily and cumulative doses of medications were compared between patients with and without delirium. Firth’s penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression was used on a priori set of variables to examine the association of potential factors with delirium. Two regression models were created to assess the effect of daily medication doses (Model 1) as well as cumulative medication doses (Model 2) of opioids and benzodiazepines.
Results: 95 patient visits met the inclusion criteria. 19 patients (20%) were diagnosed with delirium. Older patients (>12 years) had higher odds of developing delirium. Every 1mg/kg/day increase in daily doses of opioids was associated with an increased risk of delirium (OR=1.977, p=0.017). Likewise, 1 mg/kg increase in the cumulative opioid dose was associated with a higher odds of developing delirium (OR=1.035, p=0.022). Duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with the development of delirium in Model 1 (p=0.007).
Conclusions: Age, daily and cumulative opioid dosage and the duration of mechanical ventilation are associated with the development of delirium in mechanically ventilated children.