Acute kidney injury is a common complication of COVID-19, frequently fuelled by a complex interplay of factors. These include tubular injury and three primary drivers of cardiocirculatory instability: heart-lung interaction abnormalities, myocardial damage, and disturbances in fluid balance. Further complicating this dynamic, renal vulnerability to a “second-hit” injury, like a SARS-CoV-2 infection, is heightened by advanced age, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the influence of chronic treatment protocols, which may constrain the compensatory intrarenal hemodynamic mechanisms, warrants equal consideration. COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury not only escalates mortality rates but also significantly affects long-term kidney function recovery, particularly in severe instances. Thus, the imperative lies in developing and applying therapeutic strategies capable of warding off acute kidney injury and decelerating the transition into chronic kidney disease after an acute event. This narrative review aims to proffer a flexible diagnostic and therapeutic strategy that recognizes the multifaceted nature of COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients and underlines the crucial role of a tailored, overarching hemodynamic and respiratory framework in managing this complex clinical condition.
Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19, renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury, personalized cardiocirculatory support
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