Tag Archives: acute respiratory distress syndrome

The Use of Inhaled Epoprostenol for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary due to COVID-19: A Case Series

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2021-0036

Introduction: Inhaled epoprostenol (iEpo) is a pulmonary vasodilator used to treat refractory respiratory failure, including that caused by Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Aim of Study: To describe the experience at three teaching hospitals using iEpo for severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and evaluate its efficacy in improving oxygenation.
Methods: Fifteen patients were included who received iEpo, had confirmed COVID-19 and had an arterial blood gas measurement in the 12 hours before and 24 hours after iEpo initiation.
Results: Eleven patients received prone ventilation before iEpo (73.3%), and six (40%) were paralyzed. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio) improved from 95.7 mmHg to 118.9 mmHg (p=0.279) following iEpo initiation. In the nine patients with severe ARDS, the mean P/F ratio improved from 66.1 mmHg to 95.7 mmHg (p=0.317). Ultimately, four patients (26.7%) were extubated after an average of 9.9 days post-initiation.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated a trend towards improvement in oxygenation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Although limited by the small sample size, the results of this case series portend further investigation into the role of iEpo for severe respiratory failure associated with COVID-19.

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Therapeutic Evaluation of Computed Tomography Findings for Efficacy of Prone Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients with Abdominal Surgery

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0003

Introduction: In Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the heterogeneity of lung lesions results in a mismatch between ventilation and perfusion, leading to the development of hypoxia. The study aimed to examine the association between computed tomographic (CT scan) lung findings in patients with ARDS after abdominal surgery and improved hypoxia and mortality after prone ventilation.
Material and Methods: A single site, retrospective observational study was performed at the Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1st January 2004 and 31st October 2018. Patients were allocated to one of two groups after CT scanning according to the presence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) or alveolar shadow with predominantly dorsal lung atelectasis (DLA) on lung CT scan images. Also, Patients were divided into a prone ventilation group and a supine ventilation group when the treatment for ARDS was started.
Results: We analyzed data for fifty-one patients with ARDS following abdominal surgery. CT scans confirmed GGO in five patients in the Group A and in nine patients in the Group B, and DLA in 17 patients in the Group A and nine patients in the Group B. Both GGO and DLA were present in two patients in the Group A and nine patients in the Group B. Prone ventilation significantly improved patients’ impaired ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen from 12 h after prone positioning compared with that in the supine position. Weaning from mechanical ventilation occurred significantly earlier in the Group A with DLA vs the Group B with DLA (P < 0.001). Twenty-eight-day mortality was significantly lower for the Group A with DLA vs the Group B with DLA (P = 0.035).
Conclusions: These results suggest that prone ventilation could be effective for treating patients with ARDS as showing the DLA.

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