Tag Archives: acute respiratory distress syndrome

Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Thrombocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor of Severe and Moderate/Mild Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients: Preliminary Results

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0005

Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a major cause of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). The inflammatory response is escalated by the cytokines and chemokines released by neutrophils, therefore the search for quantifying the impact of this pathophysiological mechanism is imperative. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are indicators of systemic inflammation, widely accessible, inexpensive, and uncomplicated parameters.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study between March 2023 and June 2023 on patients which presented Berlin criteria for the diagnosis of ARDS during the first 24 hours from admission in the ICU. We included 33 patients who were divided into two groups: one group of 11 patients with severe ARDS and the second group of 22 patients with moderate/mild ARDS. The study evaluated demographic characteristics, leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, as well as NLR and PLR values from complete blood count, and severity scores ( APACHE II score and SOFA score). We investigated the correlation of NLR and PLR in the two main groups (severe and moderate/mild acute respiratory distress syndrome patients).
Results: For the NLR ratio statistically significant differences between the the two groups are noted: Severe ARDS 24.29(1.13-96) vs 15.67(1.69-49.71), p=0.02 For the PLR ratio, we obtained significant differences within the group presenting severe ARDS 470.3 (30.83-1427) vs. the group presenting mild/moderate ARDS 252.1 (0-1253). The difference between the two groups is statistically significant (0.049, p<0.05). The cut-off value of NLR resulted to be 23.64, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.653 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88). The best cut-off value of PLR was performed to be 435.14, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.645 (95% CI: 0.41-0.88).
Conclusion: Our study showed that NLR and PLR ratios 24 hours in patients with moderate/severe ARDS diagnosis can be a good predictor for severity of the disease. These biomarkers could be used in clinical practice due to their convenience, inexpensiveness, and simplicity of parameters. However, further investigations with larger populations of ARDS patients are necessary to support and validate these current findings.

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Study of Biochemical Parameters as Predictors for Need of Invasive Ventilation in Severely Ill COVID-19 Patients

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0030

Background: Though laboratory tests have been shown to predict mortality in COVID-19, there is still a dearth of information regarding the role of biochemical parameters in predicting the type of ventilatory support that these patients may require.
Methods: The purpose of our retrospective observational study was to investigate the relationship between biochemical parameters and the type of ventilatory support needed for the intensive care of severely ill COVID-19 patients. We comprehensively recorded history, physical examination, vital signs from point-of-care testing (POCT) devices, clinical diagnosis, details of the ventilatory support required in intensive care and the results of the biochemical analysis at the time of admission. Appropriate statistical methods were used and P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed and Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.6 to 0.7, 0.7 to 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9, and >0.9, respectively, were regarded as acceptable, fair, good, and exceptional for discrimination.
Results: Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in Urea (p = 0.0351), Sodium (p = 0.0142), Indirect Bilirubin (p = 0.0251), Albumin (p = 0.0272), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (p = 0.0060) and Procalcitonin (PCT) (p = 0.0420) were observed between the patients who were maintained on non-invasive ventilations as compared to those who required invasive ventilation. In patients who required invasive ventilation, the levels of Urea, Sodium, Indirect bilirubin, AST and PCT were higher while Albumin was lower. On ROC analysis, higher levels of Albumin was found to be acceptable indicator of maintenance on non-invasive ventilation while higher levels of Sodium and PCT were found to be fair predictor of requirement of invasive ventilation.
Conclusion: Our study emphasizes the role of biochemical parameters in predicting the type of ventilatory support that is needed in order to properly manage severely ill COVID-19 patients.

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Kidney injury in critically ill patients with COVID-19 – From pathophysiological mechanisms to a personalized therapeutic model

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0023

Acute kidney injury is a common complication of COVID-19, frequently fuelled by a complex interplay of factors. These include tubular injury and three primary drivers of cardiocirculatory instability: heart-lung interaction abnormalities, myocardial damage, and disturbances in fluid balance. Further complicating this dynamic, renal vulnerability to a “second-hit” injury, like a SARS-CoV-2 infection, is heightened by advanced age, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the influence of chronic treatment protocols, which may constrain the compensatory intrarenal hemodynamic mechanisms, warrants equal consideration. COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury not only escalates mortality rates but also significantly affects long-term kidney function recovery, particularly in severe instances. Thus, the imperative lies in developing and applying therapeutic strategies capable of warding off acute kidney injury and decelerating the transition into chronic kidney disease after an acute event. This narrative review aims to proffer a flexible diagnostic and therapeutic strategy that recognizes the multifaceted nature of COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients and underlines the crucial role of a tailored, overarching hemodynamic and respiratory framework in managing this complex clinical condition.

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COVID-19 Infection or Buttock Injections? The Dangers of Aesthetics and Socializing During a Pandemic

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2021-0043

Introduction: Silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) injections are used for cosmetic augmentation. Their use is associated with life-threatening complications such as acute pneumonitis, alveolar hemorrhage, and acute respiratory distress among others [1,2]. We report a case of a Hispanic woman who developed severe respiratory distress syndrome after gluteal silicone injections.
Case Presentation: A 44-year-old Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department complaining of progressive dyspnea on exertion for two weeks. Chest imaging revealed patchy bibasilar airspace opacities of peripheral distribution. Labs were significant for leukocytosis, elevated PT, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and fibrinogen, concerning for COVID-19, however SARS-CoV-2 testing was negative multiple times. The patient later became encephalopathic, hypoxemic, and eventually required intubation. Further history uncovered that the patient had received illicit gluteal silicone injections a few days prior to her onset of symptoms. The patient was diagnosed with silicone embolism syndrome (SES) and initiated on high dose intravenous methylprednisolone [1].
Case Discussion: Patients from lower socioeconomic backgrounds utilize illicit services to receive silicone injections at minimal costs. This leads to dangerous outcomes. The serology and imaging findings observed in our case have similarities to the typical presentation of COVID-19 pneumonia making the initial diagnosis difficult. This case serves as a cautionary tale of the importance of thorough history taking in patients with concern for COVID-19.

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The Use of Inhaled Epoprostenol for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary due to COVID-19: A Case Series

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2021-0036

Introduction: Inhaled epoprostenol (iEpo) is a pulmonary vasodilator used to treat refractory respiratory failure, including that caused by Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Aim of Study: To describe the experience at three teaching hospitals using iEpo for severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and evaluate its efficacy in improving oxygenation.
Methods: Fifteen patients were included who received iEpo, had confirmed COVID-19 and had an arterial blood gas measurement in the 12 hours before and 24 hours after iEpo initiation.
Results: Eleven patients received prone ventilation before iEpo (73.3%), and six (40%) were paralyzed. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio) improved from 95.7 mmHg to 118.9 mmHg (p=0.279) following iEpo initiation. In the nine patients with severe ARDS, the mean P/F ratio improved from 66.1 mmHg to 95.7 mmHg (p=0.317). Ultimately, four patients (26.7%) were extubated after an average of 9.9 days post-initiation.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated a trend towards improvement in oxygenation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Although limited by the small sample size, the results of this case series portend further investigation into the role of iEpo for severe respiratory failure associated with COVID-19.

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Therapeutic Evaluation of Computed Tomography Findings for Efficacy of Prone Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients with Abdominal Surgery

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0003

Introduction: In Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the heterogeneity of lung lesions results in a mismatch between ventilation and perfusion, leading to the development of hypoxia. The study aimed to examine the association between computed tomographic (CT scan) lung findings in patients with ARDS after abdominal surgery and improved hypoxia and mortality after prone ventilation.
Material and Methods: A single site, retrospective observational study was performed at the Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1st January 2004 and 31st October 2018. Patients were allocated to one of two groups after CT scanning according to the presence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) or alveolar shadow with predominantly dorsal lung atelectasis (DLA) on lung CT scan images. Also, Patients were divided into a prone ventilation group and a supine ventilation group when the treatment for ARDS was started.
Results: We analyzed data for fifty-one patients with ARDS following abdominal surgery. CT scans confirmed GGO in five patients in the Group A and in nine patients in the Group B, and DLA in 17 patients in the Group A and nine patients in the Group B. Both GGO and DLA were present in two patients in the Group A and nine patients in the Group B. Prone ventilation significantly improved patients’ impaired ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen from 12 h after prone positioning compared with that in the supine position. Weaning from mechanical ventilation occurred significantly earlier in the Group A with DLA vs the Group B with DLA (P < 0.001). Twenty-eight-day mortality was significantly lower for the Group A with DLA vs the Group B with DLA (P = 0.035).
Conclusions: These results suggest that prone ventilation could be effective for treating patients with ARDS as showing the DLA.

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