Tag Archives: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio

Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Thrombocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor of Severe and Moderate/Mild Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients: Preliminary Results

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0005

Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a major cause of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). The inflammatory response is escalated by the cytokines and chemokines released by neutrophils, therefore the search for quantifying the impact of this pathophysiological mechanism is imperative. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are indicators of systemic inflammation, widely accessible, inexpensive, and uncomplicated parameters.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study between March 2023 and June 2023 on patients which presented Berlin criteria for the diagnosis of ARDS during the first 24 hours from admission in the ICU. We included 33 patients who were divided into two groups: one group of 11 patients with severe ARDS and the second group of 22 patients with moderate/mild ARDS. The study evaluated demographic characteristics, leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts, as well as NLR and PLR values from complete blood count, and severity scores ( APACHE II score and SOFA score). We investigated the correlation of NLR and PLR in the two main groups (severe and moderate/mild acute respiratory distress syndrome patients).
Results: For the NLR ratio statistically significant differences between the the two groups are noted: Severe ARDS 24.29(1.13-96) vs 15.67(1.69-49.71), p=0.02 For the PLR ratio, we obtained significant differences within the group presenting severe ARDS 470.3 (30.83-1427) vs. the group presenting mild/moderate ARDS 252.1 (0-1253). The difference between the two groups is statistically significant (0.049, p<0.05). The cut-off value of NLR resulted to be 23.64, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.653 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88). The best cut-off value of PLR was performed to be 435.14, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.645 (95% CI: 0.41-0.88).
Conclusion: Our study showed that NLR and PLR ratios 24 hours in patients with moderate/severe ARDS diagnosis can be a good predictor for severity of the disease. These biomarkers could be used in clinical practice due to their convenience, inexpensiveness, and simplicity of parameters. However, further investigations with larger populations of ARDS patients are necessary to support and validate these current findings.

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Simplified Diagnosis of Urosepsis by Emergency Ultrasound Combined with Clinical Scores and Biomarkers

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0006

Background: Urosepsis is a life-threatening medical condition due to a systemic infection that originates in the urinary tract. Early diagnosis and treatment of urosepsis are critical to reducing mortality rates and preventing complications. Our study was aimed at identifying a fast and reliable method for early urosepsis diagnosis and severity assessment by combining prognostic scores such as SOFA and NEWS with ultrasound examination and serum markers PCT and NLR.
Methods: We performed a single-center prospective observational study in the Craiova Clinical Emergency Hospital. It initially analysed 204 patients admitted for sepsis of various origins in our hospital between June and October 2023. Those with urological conditions that were suspected to have urosepsis have been selected for the study so that finally 76 patients were included as follows: the severe cases with persistent hypotension requiring vasopressor were enrolled in the septic shock group (15 patients – 19.7%), while the rest were included in the sepsis group (61 patients – 80.3%). Mortality rate in our study was 10.5% (8/76 deaths due to sepsis).
Results: Both prognostic scores SOFA and NEWS were significantly elevated in the septic shock group, as were the sepsis markers PCT and NLR. We identified a strong significant positive correlation between the NEWS and SOFA scores (r = 0.793) as well as PCT and NLR (r=0.417). Ultrasound emergency evaluation proved to be similar to CT scan in the diagnosis of urosepsis (RR = 0.944, p=0.264). ROC analysis showed similar diagnostic performance for both scores (AUC = 0.874 for SOFA and 0.791 for NEWS), PCT and NLR (AUC = 0.743 and 0.717).
Conclusion: Our results indicate that an accurate and fast diagnosis of urosepsis and its severity may be accomplished by combining the use of simpler tools like emergency ultrasound, the NEWS score and NLR which provide a similar diagnosis performance as other more complex evaluations.

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Is Carboxyhaemoglobin an Effective Bedside Prognostic Tool for Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients?

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0031

Introduction: Proper management of sepsis poses a challenge even today, with early diagnosis and targeted treatment being the most important steps. Easy, cost-effective bedside tools are needed in order to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis or septic shock.
Aim of study: This study aims to find a correlation between Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) severity scores, the Neutrophil-Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR) and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in septic or septic shock patients with the scope of establishing a bed side cost-effective prognostic tool.
Materials and methods: A pilot, prospective, observational, and ongoing study was conducted on 61 patients admitted with sepsis or septic shock according to the SEPSIS 3 Consensus definition. We followed clinical and paraclinical parameters on day 1 (D1) and day 5 (D5) after meeting the inclusion criteria.
Results: On D1 we found a statistically significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), r = 0.7287 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.5841-0.8285, r = 0.6862 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.5251-0.7998 and r = 0.8534 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.7663 to 0.9097. On D5 we observed similar results: a significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), with r = 0.7877 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.6283 to 0.8836, r = 0.8210 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.6822 to 0.9027 and r = 0.8880 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II., CI: 0.7952 to 0.9401. Nil correlation was found between the severity scores, NLR and COHb on D1 and D5.
Conclusion: Cost-effective bedside tools to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis are yet to be found, however the positive correlation between the severity scores point out to a combination of such tools for prognosis prediction of septic or septic shock patients.

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