1 Düzce University, School of Medicine, Düzce, Türkiye
2 Balıkesir University, School of Medicine, Balıkesir, Türkiye
Aim of the Study: Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is often observed in critically ill patients. This study aimed to examine thyroid hormone changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experiencing acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) and to evaluate the impact of these alterations on clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective investigation involved 80 COPD patients (age 71.5±9.5 years; 57.5% male) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to AHRF. NTIS was identified when free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were below the lower limit, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were within the normal range or below the lower limits. Results: NTIS was detected in 63.7% of the patients. Decreased fT3 levels were found in 36.3% of the patients, reduced T4 levels in 33.8%, and diminished TSH levels in 15%. Patients with low fT3 levels exhibited elevated C-reactive protein levels, white blood cell counts, and APACHE II scores, necessitated vasopressor infusion more frequently during their ICU stay, and had increased mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 28.8%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fT3 level (odds ratio [OR]., 0.271; 95% confidence interval [CI]., 0.085-0.865; p=0.027), APACHE II score (OR, 1.155; 95% CI, 1.041-1.282; p=0.007), and vasopressor use (OR, 5.426; 95% CI, 1.439-20.468; p=0.013) were crucial predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: A high prevalence of NTIS is observed in COPD patients with AHRF, with low fT3 levels frequently observed. The presence of lower levels of fT3 is associated with a greater severity of the disease and a significant prognostic indicator.
Introduction: Intermediate care units (IMCUs) serve as step-up units for emergency department patients and as step-down units for critically ill patients transferred from intensive care units. This study compares four critical illness scores for assessment of acutely ill patients and their accuracy in predicting mortality in patients admitted to IMCU. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study on patients aged ≥18 admitted to IMCU of Aga Khan University Hospital from 2017 to 2019. All patients admitted to IMCU from the emergency room were included in the study. Patient’s record were reviewed for demographic data, physiological and laboratory parameters. Critical illness scores were calculated from these variables for each patient. Results: A total of 1192 patients were admitted to the IMCU, of which 923 (77.4%) medical records were finally analyzed. The mean (SD) age of participants was 62 years (± 16.5) and 469 (50.8%) were women. The overall hospital mortality rate of patients managed in IMCU was 6.4% (59/923 patients). The median scores of APACHE II, SOFA, SAPS II and MEWS were 16 (IQR 11–21), 4 (IQR 2–6), 36 (IQR 30–53) and 3 (IQR 2-4) points respectively. AUC for SAPS II was 0.763 (95% CI: 0.71-0.81), SOFA score was 0.735 (95% CI: 0.68-0.79) and MEWS score was 0.714 (95% CI: 0.66-0.77). The lowest ROC curve was 0.584 (95% CI: 0.52-0.64) for APACHE II. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study found that SAPS II, followed by SOFA and MEWS scores, provided better discrimination in stratifying critical illness in patients admitted to IMCU of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.
Ioana Roxana Codru1,2, Marian Valeriu Codru3, Bogdan Ioan Vintilă1,2, Ioana Gherman3, Dragoș Popescu1,3
1 Faculty of Medicine, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania
2 Anesthesia and Intensive Care Clinic, Sibiu Emergency County Hospital, Romania
3 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Sibiu Emergency County Hospital, Romania
Sudden respiratory and circulatory collapse during or immediately after delivery, vaginal or surgical, can have many causes that can lead to poor maternal outcomes. A pregnancy-induced amniotic fluid embolism and anaphylaxis are two distinct medical conditions that appear similar clinically but have very different underlying mechanisms and treatment approaches. Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but life-threatening obstetric emergency that leads to a systemic inflammatory response that can be easily confounded with an anaphylactic reaction. We report the case of a patient with no comorbidities or allergies before the current pregnancy that was proposed for delivery by C-Section under spinal anesthesia. After delivery of the placenta and administering the test dose of antibiotic, the patient developed sudden circulatory collapse, altered neurological status, and critical respiratory distress. At that point, the two presumed diagnoses were amniotic fluid embolism and anaphylaxis. Concurrently with the diagnostic pathway, supportive measures (intubation, mechanical ventilation, hemodynamic support) were taken. The clinical evolution was favorable, and after day three, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Our case highlights the significance of promptly distinguishing between anaphylaxis and amniotic fluid embolism to facilitate the timely management of the critical situation.
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology, Târgu Mureș, Romania
The human microbiome, defined as a personal, genomic signature of our latent or manifest infectious profile (bacterial, viral, fungal), located predominantly in the digestive tract, opens the door to personalized medicine studies on a scale larger than the human genome in terms of data that can be analyzed and interpreted. Compared to the human genome, which has approximately 23,000 genes, the European Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract and the Human Microbiome Project have reported 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes . [More]
1 Ibaraki Christian University, Ibaraki, Japan
2 Hitachi General Hospital, Hitachi, Japan
3 Japanese Red Cross Kyushu International College of Nursing, Kyushu, Japan
Introduction: Minitracheostomy involves the percutaneous insertion of a 4-mm-diameter cricothyroidotomy tube for tracheal suctioning to facilitate the clearance of airway secretions. The advantage of using the minitracheostomy is in the clearance of secretions, however data on their usefulness for respiratory failure after extubation is limited. Aim of the study: We aimed to assess the use of minitracheostomy for patients with challenging extubation caused by significant sputum. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive case series. We analyzed the data of 31 patients with pneumonia. After minitracheostomy, the primary endpoints of reintubation within 72 hours and clinical effects, including mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU), or hospital stay, were assessed. The successful extubation group included patients who did not require reintubation within 72 hours. Conversely, the reintubation group consisted of patients mandating reestablishment of intubation within 72 hours. Results: Among those who underwent minitracheostomy after extubation, 22 (71%) underwent successful extubation and 9 underwent reintubation (reintubation rate: 29%). The in-hospital mortality rates after 30 days were 18.2% in the successful extubation group and 22.2% in the reintubation group. The ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 11 days (interquartile range: 8–14.3 days) and 23 days (interquartile range: 15.5–41 days), respectively, in the successful extubation group; they were 14 days (interquartile range: 11–18.5 days) and 30 days (interquartile range: 16–45.5 days), respectively, in the reintubation group. Conclusions: The prophylactic use of minitracheostomy may be an option as a means of reducing reintubation in patients with pneumonia who are at very high risk of reintubation.Keywords: Airway extubation, weaning, ventilator weaning, respiration, tracheostomy, sputum, pneumonia Keywords: airway extubation, ventilator weaning, tracheostomy, sputum, pneumonia
Bianca‐Liana Grigorescu1, Oana Coman2, Anca Meda Văsieșiu3, Anca Bacârea4, Marius Petrișor2, Irina Săplăcan5, Raluca Ștefania Fodor1
1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Simulation Applied in Medicine, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
3 Department of Infectious Diseases, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
4 Department of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
5 County Emergency Clinical Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania
Introduction: Proper management of sepsis poses a challenge even today, with early diagnosis and targeted treatment being the most important steps. Easy, cost-effective bedside tools are needed in order to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis or septic shock. Aim of study: This study aims to find a correlation between Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) severity scores, the Neutrophil-Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR) and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in septic or septic shock patients with the scope of establishing a bed side cost-effective prognostic tool. Materials and methods: A pilot, prospective, observational, and ongoing study was conducted on 61 patients admitted with sepsis or septic shock according to the SEPSIS 3 Consensus definition. We followed clinical and paraclinical parameters on day 1 (D1) and day 5 (D5) after meeting the inclusion criteria. Results: On D1 we found a statistically significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), r = 0.7287 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.5841-0.8285, r = 0.6862 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.5251-0.7998 and r = 0.8534 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.7663 to 0.9097. On D5 we observed similar results: a significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), with r = 0.7877 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.6283 to 0.8836, r = 0.8210 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.6822 to 0.9027 and r = 0.8880 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II., CI: 0.7952 to 0.9401. Nil correlation was found between the severity scores, NLR and COHb on D1 and D5. Conclusion: Cost-effective bedside tools to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis are yet to be found, however the positive correlation between the severity scores point out to a combination of such tools for prognosis prediction of septic or septic shock patients.
1 Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Enzene Biosciences, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Background: Though laboratory tests have been shown to predict mortality in COVID-19, there is still a dearth of information regarding the role of biochemical parameters in predicting the type of ventilatory support that these patients may require. Methods: The purpose of our retrospective observational study was to investigate the relationship between biochemical parameters and the type of ventilatory support needed for the intensive care of severely ill COVID-19 patients. We comprehensively recorded history, physical examination, vital signs from point-of-care testing (POCT) devices, clinical diagnosis, details of the ventilatory support required in intensive care and the results of the biochemical analysis at the time of admission. Appropriate statistical methods were used and P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed and Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.6 to 0.7, 0.7 to 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9, and >0.9, respectively, were regarded as acceptable, fair, good, and exceptional for discrimination. Results: Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in Urea (p = 0.0351), Sodium (p = 0.0142), Indirect Bilirubin (p = 0.0251), Albumin (p = 0.0272), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (p = 0.0060) and Procalcitonin (PCT) (p = 0.0420) were observed between the patients who were maintained on non-invasive ventilations as compared to those who required invasive ventilation. In patients who required invasive ventilation, the levels of Urea, Sodium, Indirect bilirubin, AST and PCT were higher while Albumin was lower. On ROC analysis, higher levels of Albumin was found to be acceptable indicator of maintenance on non-invasive ventilation while higher levels of Sodium and PCT were found to be fair predictor of requirement of invasive ventilation. Conclusion: Our study emphasizes the role of biochemical parameters in predicting the type of ventilatory support that is needed in order to properly manage severely ill COVID-19 patients.
Sotiria Koutsouki1, Dimitrios Kosmidis2, Eva-Otilia Nagy3, Alexandra Tsaroucha4, Georgios Anastasopoulos5, Ioannis Pnevmatikos6, Vasileios Papaioannou7
1 General Hospital of Kavala, Kavala, Greece
2 Nursing Department, International Hellenic University, Didymoteicho, Greece
3 General Hospital of Kavala, Kavala, Greece
4 Postgraduate program on Bioethics, Laboratory of Bioethics, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
5 Medical Informatics Laboratory, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
6 Faculty of Medicine, University of Cyprus, Lefkosia, Cyprus
7 Faculty of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
Introduction: Using a plan to limit non-beneficial life support interventions has significantly reduced harm and loss of dignity for patients at the end of life. The association of these limitations with patients’ clinical characteristics and health care costs in the intensive care unit (ICU) needs further scientific evidence. Aim of the study: To explore decisions to limit non-beneficial life support interventions, their correlation with patients’ clinical data, and their effect on the cost of care in the ICU. Material and Methods: We included all patients admitted to the general ICU of a hospital in Greece in a two-year (2019-2021) prospective study. Data collection included patient demographic and clinical variables, data related to decisions to limit (withholding, withdrawing) non-beneficial interventions (ΝΒΙs), and economic data. Comparisons were made between patients with and without limitation decisions. Results: NBIs were limited in 164 of 454 patients (36.12%). Patients with limitation decisions were associated with older age (70y vs. 62y; p<0,001), greater disease severity score (APACHE IV, 71 vs. 50; p<0,001), longer length of stay (7d vs. 4.5d; p<0,001), and worse prognosis of death (APACHE IV PDR, 48.9 vs. 17.35; p<0,001). All cost categories and total cost per patient were also higher than the patient without limitation of NBIs (9247,79€ vs. 8029,46€, p<0,004). The mean daily cost has not differed between the groups (831,24€ vs. 832,59€; p<0,716). However, in the group of patients with limitations, all cost categories, including the average daily cost (767.31€ vs. 649.12€) after the limitation of NBIs, were reduced to a statistically significant degree (p<0.001). Conclusions: Limiting NBIs in the ICU reduces healthcare costs and may lead to better management of ICU resource use.
Oana Elena Branea1, Anca Gabriela Vlad2, Mihai Pui2, Diana Andreea Becica2, Mihai Emanuel Becica2, AnaMaria Romina Budeanu2, Razvan Gabriel Budeanu2, Florin Stoica1, Alexandra Elena Lazar1
1 George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Targu Mures County Emergency Clinical Hospital, Romania
Background: Since its debut, as reported by the first published studies, COVID-19 has been linked to life-threatening conditions that needed vital assistance and admission to the intensive care unit. Skeletal muscle is a core element in an organism’s health due to its ability to keep energy balance and homeostasis. Many patients with prolonged hospitalization are characterized by a greater probability prone to critical illness myopathy or intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the skeletal muscle in a COVID-19 cohort of critically ill patients by measuring the psoas area and density. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study that included critically ill adult patients, COVID-19 positive, mechanically ventilated, with an ICU stay of over 24 hours, and who had 2 CT scans eligible for psoas muscle evaluation. In these patients, correlations between different severity scores and psoas CT scans were sought, along with correlations with the outcome of the patients. Results: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences were noticed regarding the psoas analysis by two blinded radiologists. Significant correlations were found between LOS in the hospital and in ICU with psoas area and Hounsfield Units for the first CT scan performed. With reference to AUC-ROC and outcome, it is underlined that AUC-ROC is close to 0.5 values, for both the psoas area and HU, indicating that the model had no class separation capacity. Conclusion: The study suggested that over a short period, the psoas muscle area, and the psoas HU decline, for both the left and the right sight, in adult COVID-19 patients in ICU conditions, yet not statistically significant. Although more than two-thirds of the patients had a negative outcome, it was not possible to demonstrate an association between the SARS-COV2 infection and psoas muscle impairment. These findings highlight the need for further larger investigations.
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