Category Archives: AoP

The Impact of Hyperoxia Treatment on Neurological Outcomes and Mortality in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injured patients

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2021-0014

Background: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between hyperoxia and outcomes in patients with TBI remains controversial. We assessed the effect of persistent hyperoxia on the neurological outcomes and survival of critically ill patients with moderate-severe TBI.
Method: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adults with moderate-severe TBI admitted to the ICU between 1st January 2016 and 31st December 2019 and who required invasive mechanical ventilation. Arterial blood gas data was recorded within the first 3 hours of intubation and then after 6-12 hours and 24-48 hours. The patients were divided into two categories: Group I had a PaO2 < 120mmHg on at least two ABGs undertaken in the first twelve hours post intubation and Group II had a PaO2 ≥ 120mmHg on at least two ABGs in the same period. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess predictors of hospital mortality and good neurologic outcome (Glasgow outcome score ≥ 4).
Results: The study included 309 patients: 54.7% (n=169) in Group I and 45.3% (n=140) in Group II. Hyperoxia was not associated with increased mortality in the ICU (20.1% vs. 17.9%, p=0.62) or hospital (20.7% vs. 17.9%, p=0.53), moreover, the hospital discharge mean (SD) Glasgow Coma Scale (11.0(5.1) vs. 11.2(4.9), p=0.70) and mean (SD) Glasgow Outcome Score (3.1(1.3) vs. 3.1(1.2), p=0.47) were similar. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, persistent hyperoxia was not associated with increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.34-1.35, p=0.29). PaO2 within the first 3 hours was also not associated with mortality: 121-200mmHg: aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.23-1.49, p=0.26; 201-300mmHg: aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.27-1.59, p=0.35; 301-400mmHg: aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.31-2.35, p=0.75 and >400mmHg: aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.18-1.44, p=0.20; reference: PaO2 60-120mmHg within 3 hours. However, hyperoxia >400mmHg was associated with being less likely to have good neurological (GOS ≥4) outcome on hospital discharge (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.98, p=0.046; reference: PaO2 60-120mmHg within 3 hours.
Conclusion: In intubated patients with moderate-severe TBI, hyperoxia in the first 48 hours was not independently associated with hospital mortality. However, PaO2 >400mmHg may be associated with a worse neurological outcome on hospital discharge.

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Effect of Early versus Delayed Parenteral Nutrition on the Health Outcomes of Critically Ill Adults: A Systematic Review

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2021-0011

Objectives: This systematic review aims to evaluate and summarise the findings of all relevant studies which identified the effect of early vs delayed parenteral nutrition (PN), early PN vs early supplemental PN and early PN vs standard care for critically ill adults.
Methods: The literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Medline, Clinical Key, and Ovid discovery databases. The reference lists of studies published from 2000 till June 2020 were hand searched.
Result: On screening 2088 articles, a total of five RCTs with 6,277 patients were included in this review. Only one clinical trial compared early PN and late PN; the results reported significantly shorter periods in intensive care unit (ICU) stay (p=0.02) and less ICU related infections (p=0.008) in the late PN group compared to the Early PN group. Two trials compared total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) +TPN groups. Both found a significantly longer hospital stay duration (p<0.05 and p<0.01) with a higher mortality rate in the TPN group compared to the EN+TPN group. A statistically significant improvement was observed in patients’ quality of life receiving early PN compared to standard care (p=0.01). In contrast, no significant difference was found in the supplemental PN vs the standard care group.
Conclusion: The supplemental PN patients had shorter ICU stay and lower mortality rates than TPN. However, these findings should be interpreted carefully as included studies have different initiation timing of nutritional support, and the patients’ diagnosis varied.
Systematic review registration: PROSPERO: CRD42020183175

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