1 Düzce University, School of Medicine, Düzce, Türkiye
2 Balıkesir University, School of Medicine, Balıkesir, Türkiye
Aim of the Study: Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is often observed in critically ill patients. This study aimed to examine thyroid hormone changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experiencing acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) and to evaluate the impact of these alterations on clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective investigation involved 80 COPD patients (age 71.5±9.5 years; 57.5% male) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to AHRF. NTIS was identified when free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were below the lower limit, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were within the normal range or below the lower limits. Results: NTIS was detected in 63.7% of the patients. Decreased fT3 levels were found in 36.3% of the patients, reduced T4 levels in 33.8%, and diminished TSH levels in 15%. Patients with low fT3 levels exhibited elevated C-reactive protein levels, white blood cell counts, and APACHE II scores, necessitated vasopressor infusion more frequently during their ICU stay, and had increased mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 28.8%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fT3 level (odds ratio [OR]., 0.271; 95% confidence interval [CI]., 0.085-0.865; p=0.027), APACHE II score (OR, 1.155; 95% CI, 1.041-1.282; p=0.007), and vasopressor use (OR, 5.426; 95% CI, 1.439-20.468; p=0.013) were crucial predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: A high prevalence of NTIS is observed in COPD patients with AHRF, with low fT3 levels frequently observed. The presence of lower levels of fT3 is associated with a greater severity of the disease and a significant prognostic indicator.
Introduction: Intermediate care units (IMCUs) serve as step-up units for emergency department patients and as step-down units for critically ill patients transferred from intensive care units. This study compares four critical illness scores for assessment of acutely ill patients and their accuracy in predicting mortality in patients admitted to IMCU. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study on patients aged ≥18 admitted to IMCU of Aga Khan University Hospital from 2017 to 2019. All patients admitted to IMCU from the emergency room were included in the study. Patient’s record were reviewed for demographic data, physiological and laboratory parameters. Critical illness scores were calculated from these variables for each patient. Results: A total of 1192 patients were admitted to the IMCU, of which 923 (77.4%) medical records were finally analyzed. The mean (SD) age of participants was 62 years (± 16.5) and 469 (50.8%) were women. The overall hospital mortality rate of patients managed in IMCU was 6.4% (59/923 patients). The median scores of APACHE II, SOFA, SAPS II and MEWS were 16 (IQR 11–21), 4 (IQR 2–6), 36 (IQR 30–53) and 3 (IQR 2-4) points respectively. AUC for SAPS II was 0.763 (95% CI: 0.71-0.81), SOFA score was 0.735 (95% CI: 0.68-0.79) and MEWS score was 0.714 (95% CI: 0.66-0.77). The lowest ROC curve was 0.584 (95% CI: 0.52-0.64) for APACHE II. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study found that SAPS II, followed by SOFA and MEWS scores, provided better discrimination in stratifying critical illness in patients admitted to IMCU of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.
Bianca‐Liana Grigorescu1, Oana Coman2, Anca Meda Văsieșiu3, Anca Bacârea4, Marius Petrișor2, Irina Săplăcan5, Raluca Ștefania Fodor1
1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Simulation Applied in Medicine, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
3 Department of Infectious Diseases, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
4 Department of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
5 County Emergency Clinical Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania
Introduction: Proper management of sepsis poses a challenge even today, with early diagnosis and targeted treatment being the most important steps. Easy, cost-effective bedside tools are needed in order to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis or septic shock. Aim of study: This study aims to find a correlation between Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) severity scores, the Neutrophil-Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR) and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in septic or septic shock patients with the scope of establishing a bed side cost-effective prognostic tool. Materials and methods: A pilot, prospective, observational, and ongoing study was conducted on 61 patients admitted with sepsis or septic shock according to the SEPSIS 3 Consensus definition. We followed clinical and paraclinical parameters on day 1 (D1) and day 5 (D5) after meeting the inclusion criteria. Results: On D1 we found a statistically significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), r = 0.7287 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.5841-0.8285, r = 0.6862 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.5251-0.7998 and r = 0.8534 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.7663 to 0.9097. On D5 we observed similar results: a significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), with r = 0.7877 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.6283 to 0.8836, r = 0.8210 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.6822 to 0.9027 and r = 0.8880 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II., CI: 0.7952 to 0.9401. Nil correlation was found between the severity scores, NLR and COHb on D1 and D5. Conclusion: Cost-effective bedside tools to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis are yet to be found, however the positive correlation between the severity scores point out to a combination of such tools for prognosis prediction of septic or septic shock patients.
1 Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Enzene Biosciences, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Background: Though laboratory tests have been shown to predict mortality in COVID-19, there is still a dearth of information regarding the role of biochemical parameters in predicting the type of ventilatory support that these patients may require. Methods: The purpose of our retrospective observational study was to investigate the relationship between biochemical parameters and the type of ventilatory support needed for the intensive care of severely ill COVID-19 patients. We comprehensively recorded history, physical examination, vital signs from point-of-care testing (POCT) devices, clinical diagnosis, details of the ventilatory support required in intensive care and the results of the biochemical analysis at the time of admission. Appropriate statistical methods were used and P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed and Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.6 to 0.7, 0.7 to 0.8, 0.8 to 0.9, and >0.9, respectively, were regarded as acceptable, fair, good, and exceptional for discrimination. Results: Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in Urea (p = 0.0351), Sodium (p = 0.0142), Indirect Bilirubin (p = 0.0251), Albumin (p = 0.0272), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (p = 0.0060) and Procalcitonin (PCT) (p = 0.0420) were observed between the patients who were maintained on non-invasive ventilations as compared to those who required invasive ventilation. In patients who required invasive ventilation, the levels of Urea, Sodium, Indirect bilirubin, AST and PCT were higher while Albumin was lower. On ROC analysis, higher levels of Albumin was found to be acceptable indicator of maintenance on non-invasive ventilation while higher levels of Sodium and PCT were found to be fair predictor of requirement of invasive ventilation. Conclusion: Our study emphasizes the role of biochemical parameters in predicting the type of ventilatory support that is needed in order to properly manage severely ill COVID-19 patients.
Sotiria Koutsouki1, Dimitrios Kosmidis2, Eva-Otilia Nagy3, Alexandra Tsaroucha4, Georgios Anastasopoulos5, Ioannis Pnevmatikos6, Vasileios Papaioannou7
1 General Hospital of Kavala, Kavala, Greece
2 Nursing Department, International Hellenic University, Didymoteicho, Greece
3 General Hospital of Kavala, Kavala, Greece
4 Postgraduate program on Bioethics, Laboratory of Bioethics, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
5 Medical Informatics Laboratory, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
6 Faculty of Medicine, University of Cyprus, Lefkosia, Cyprus
7 Faculty of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
Introduction: Using a plan to limit non-beneficial life support interventions has significantly reduced harm and loss of dignity for patients at the end of life. The association of these limitations with patients’ clinical characteristics and health care costs in the intensive care unit (ICU) needs further scientific evidence. Aim of the study: To explore decisions to limit non-beneficial life support interventions, their correlation with patients’ clinical data, and their effect on the cost of care in the ICU. Material and Methods: We included all patients admitted to the general ICU of a hospital in Greece in a two-year (2019-2021) prospective study. Data collection included patient demographic and clinical variables, data related to decisions to limit (withholding, withdrawing) non-beneficial interventions (ΝΒΙs), and economic data. Comparisons were made between patients with and without limitation decisions. Results: NBIs were limited in 164 of 454 patients (36.12%). Patients with limitation decisions were associated with older age (70y vs. 62y; p<0,001), greater disease severity score (APACHE IV, 71 vs. 50; p<0,001), longer length of stay (7d vs. 4.5d; p<0,001), and worse prognosis of death (APACHE IV PDR, 48.9 vs. 17.35; p<0,001). All cost categories and total cost per patient were also higher than the patient without limitation of NBIs (9247,79€ vs. 8029,46€, p<0,004). The mean daily cost has not differed between the groups (831,24€ vs. 832,59€; p<0,716). However, in the group of patients with limitations, all cost categories, including the average daily cost (767.31€ vs. 649.12€) after the limitation of NBIs, were reduced to a statistically significant degree (p<0.001). Conclusions: Limiting NBIs in the ICU reduces healthcare costs and may lead to better management of ICU resource use.
Oana Elena Branea1, Anca Gabriela Vlad2, Mihai Pui2, Diana Andreea Becica2, Mihai Emanuel Becica2, AnaMaria Romina Budeanu2, Razvan Gabriel Budeanu2, Florin Stoica1, Alexandra Elena Lazar1
1 George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Targu Mures County Emergency Clinical Hospital, Romania
Background: Since its debut, as reported by the first published studies, COVID-19 has been linked to life-threatening conditions that needed vital assistance and admission to the intensive care unit. Skeletal muscle is a core element in an organism’s health due to its ability to keep energy balance and homeostasis. Many patients with prolonged hospitalization are characterized by a greater probability prone to critical illness myopathy or intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the skeletal muscle in a COVID-19 cohort of critically ill patients by measuring the psoas area and density. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study that included critically ill adult patients, COVID-19 positive, mechanically ventilated, with an ICU stay of over 24 hours, and who had 2 CT scans eligible for psoas muscle evaluation. In these patients, correlations between different severity scores and psoas CT scans were sought, along with correlations with the outcome of the patients. Results: Twenty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences were noticed regarding the psoas analysis by two blinded radiologists. Significant correlations were found between LOS in the hospital and in ICU with psoas area and Hounsfield Units for the first CT scan performed. With reference to AUC-ROC and outcome, it is underlined that AUC-ROC is close to 0.5 values, for both the psoas area and HU, indicating that the model had no class separation capacity. Conclusion: The study suggested that over a short period, the psoas muscle area, and the psoas HU decline, for both the left and the right sight, in adult COVID-19 patients in ICU conditions, yet not statistically significant. Although more than two-thirds of the patients had a negative outcome, it was not possible to demonstrate an association between the SARS-COV2 infection and psoas muscle impairment. These findings highlight the need for further larger investigations.
1 Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey
2 Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
3 Department of Pediatric Emergency, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
4 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
5 Department of Neurosurgery, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
6 Department of Pediatrics, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant cause of death and morbidity in childhood since the elucidation of infectious causes within the last century. Mortality rates in this population decreased over time due to developments in technology and effective treatment modalities. Aim of the study: This retrospective cohort study aimed to describe the volume, severity and mechanism of all hospital-admitted pediatric TBI patients at a university hospital over a 5-year period. Material and Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study including 90 pediatric patients with TBI admitted to a tertiary care PICU. The patients’ demographic data, injury mechanisms, disease and trauma severity scores, initiation of enteral nutrition and outcome measures such as hospital stay, PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were also recorded. Late enteral nutrition was defined as initiation of enteral feeding after 48 hours of hospitalization. Results: Of the 90 patients included in the cohort, 60% had mild TBI, 21.1% had moderate TBI and 18.9% had severe TBI. Their mean age was 69 months (3-210 months). TBI was isolated in 34 (37.8%) patients and observed as a part of multisystemic trauma in 56 (62.2%). The most commonly involved site in multisystemic injury was the thorax (33.3%). The length of hospitalization in the late enteral nutrition group was significantly higher than that in the early nutrition group, while the PICU stay was not significantly different between the two groups. The multiple logistic regression analysis found a significant relationship between GOS-3rd month and PIM3 score, the presence of diffuse axonal injury and the need for CPR in the first 24 h of hospitalization. Conclusion: Although our study showed that delayed enteral nutrition did not affect neurologic outcome, it may lead to prolonged hospitalization and increased hospital costs. High PIM3 scores and diffuse axonal injury are both associated with worse neurologic outcomes.
Ákos Vince Andrejkovits1, Adina Huțanu2,3, Ervin József Susányi4, Valentina Negrea1,5, Anca Meda Văsieșiu4,5
1 Doctoral School of Medicine and Pharmacy, I.O.S.U.D., George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Laboratory Medicine, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
3 Center for Advanced Medical and Pharmaceutical Research, Targu Mures, Romania
4 First Infectious Disease Clinic of Targu Mureș, Mureș County Clinical Hospital, Romania
5 Department of Infectious Disease, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Introduction: The severity of COVID-19 depends on several factors, but the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines remains in center of the interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive utility of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in patients with COVID-19. Material and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 181 adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the 1st Infectious Disease County Hospital Târgu Mureș from December 2020 to September 2021. Serum cytokine levels were measured and correlated with disease severity, need for oxygen therapy, intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, and outcome.Results: We found significantly higher serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in patients with severe COVID-19 and in those with a fatal outcome. The logistic regression analysis showed a significant predictive value for IL-8 regarding disease severity, and for IL6 and IL-10 regarding ICU transfer and fatal outcome. Conclusions: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were significantly increased in patients with COVID-19, but their predictive value regarding disease severity and the need for oxygen therapy was poor. We found IL-6 and IL-10 to have a good predictive performance regarding ICU transfer and fatal outcome.
Cosmin Banceu 1,2,3, Marius Harpa1,3, Klara Brinzaniuc1, Ioan Tilea1, Andreea Varga1, Mirela Liana Gliga1, Septimiu Voidazan1,3, Nicolae Neagu1, Dan Alexandru Szabo1, Diana Banceu4, Daiana Cristutiu3, Ionut Alexandru Balmos1, Alexandra Puscas1,3, Marvin Oprean4, Horatiu Suciu1,3
1 George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 I.O.S.U.D George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
3 Emergency Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases and Transplantation Targu Mures, Romania
4 Dimitrie Cantemir University of Targu Mures, Romania
Aortic dissection (AD) is a severe cardiovascular condition that could have negative consequences. Our study employed a prospective design and examined preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data to evaluate the effects of gender on various medical conditions. We looked at how gender affected the results of aortic dissection (AD). In contrast to female patients who had more systemic hypertension (p=0.031), male patients had higher rates of hemopericardium (p=0.003), pulmonary hypertension (p=0.039), and hemopericardium (p=0.003). Dobutamine administration during surgery significantly raised the mortality risk (p=0.015). There were noticeably more women patients (p=0.01) in the 71 to 80 age group. Significant differences in age (p=0.004), eGFR at admission (p=0.009), and eGFR at discharge (p=0.006) were seen, however, there was no association between gender and mortality. In conclusion, our findings highlight that gender may no longer be such an important aspect of aortic dissection disease as we previously thought, and this information could have an important contribution for surgeons as well as for anesthesiologists involved in the management of acute aortic dissection.
Effrosyni Gerovasileiou1, Apostolis-Alkiviadis Menis2, George Gavriilidis3, Eleni Magira4, Prodromos Temperikidis5, Sofia Papoti2, Nikitas Karavidas1, Michael Spanos1, Epaminondas Zakynthinos6, Demosthenes Makris1
1 University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece
2 G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
3 Sotiria Regional Chest Disease Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece
4 Evangelismos Athens General Hospital, Athens, Greece
5 Evangelismos Athens General Hospital, Cardiology, Athens, Greece
6 General University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece
Background: Data on risk factors associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning failure among SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients is limited. We aimed to determine clinical characteristics associated with weaning outcome in SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients under MV. Objectives: To determine potential risk factors for weaning outcome in patients with SARS-CoV2 ARDS. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in the ICUs of four Greek hospitals via review of the electronic medical record for the period 2020-2021. All consecutive adult patients were screened and were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: a) age equal or above 18 years, b) need for MV for more than 48 hours and c) diagnosis of ARDS due to SARS-CoV2 pneumonia or primary or secondary ARDS of other aetiologies. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded for the first 28 days following ICU admission. The primary outcome was weaning success defined as spontaneous ventilation for more than 48 hours. Results: A hundred and fifty eight patients were included; 96 SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients. SOFA score, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and shock were independently associated with the weaning outcome OR(95% CI), 0.86 (0.73-0.99), 0.27 (0.08-0.89) and 0.30 (0.14-0.61), respectively]. When we analysed data from SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients separately, COPD [0.18 (0.03-0.96)] and shock [0.33(0.12 – 0.86)] were independently associated with the weaning outcome. Conclusions: The presence of COPD and shock are potential risk factors for adverse weaning outcome in SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients.
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