Tag Archives: pneumonia

Effectiveness of Minitracheostomy After Extubation in Patients with Pneumonia at High Risk of Reintubation: A Case Series

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0029

Introduction: Minitracheostomy involves the percutaneous insertion of a 4-mm-diameter cricothyroidotomy tube for tracheal suctioning to facilitate the clearance of airway secretions. The advantage of using the minitracheostomy is in the clearance of secretions, however data on their usefulness for respiratory failure after extubation is limited.
Aim of the study: We aimed to assess the use of minitracheostomy for patients with challenging extubation caused by significant sputum.
Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive case series. We analyzed the data of 31 patients with pneumonia. After minitracheostomy, the primary endpoints of reintubation within 72 hours and clinical effects, including mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU), or hospital stay, were assessed. The successful extubation group included patients who did not require reintubation within 72 hours. Conversely, the reintubation group consisted of patients mandating reestablishment of intubation within 72 hours.
Results: Among those who underwent minitracheostomy after extubation, 22 (71%) underwent successful extubation and 9 underwent reintubation (reintubation rate: 29%). The in-hospital mortality rates after 30 days were 18.2% in the successful extubation group and 22.2% in the reintubation group. The ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 11 days (interquartile range: 8–14.3 days) and 23 days (interquartile range: 15.5–41 days), respectively, in the successful extubation group; they were 14 days (interquartile range: 11–18.5 days) and 30 days (interquartile range: 16–45.5 days), respectively, in the reintubation group.
Conclusions: The prophylactic use of minitracheostomy may be an option as a means of reducing reintubation in patients with pneumonia who are at very high risk of reintubation.Keywords: Airway extubation, weaning, ventilator weaning, respiration, tracheostomy, sputum, pneumonia
Keywords: airway extubation, ventilator weaning, tracheostomy, sputum, pneumonia

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Personalisation of Therapies in COVID-19 Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0045

Introduction: Each patient suffering from severe coronavirus COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), requiring mechanical ventilation, shows different lung mechanics and disease evolution. Therefore, lung protective strategies should be personalised for the individual patient.
Case presentation: A 64-year-old male patient was intubated ten days after the symptoms of COVID-19 infection presented. He was placed in the prone position for sixteen hours, resulting in a marked improvement in oxygenation. However, after being returned to the supine position, his SpO2 rapidly dropped from 98% to 91%, and electrical impedance tomography showed less ventilation at the dorsal region and a ventral shift of ventilation distribution. An incremental and decremental PEEP trial under electrical impedance tomography monitoring was carried out, confirming that the dependent lung regions were recruited with increased pressures and homogenous ventilation distribution could be provided with 14 cmH2O of PEEP. The optimal settings were reassessed next day after returning from the second session of the prone position. After four prone position-sessions in five days, oxygenation was stabilised and eventually the patient was discharged.
Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS require individualised ventilation support depending on the stage of their disease. Daily PEEP trial monitored by electrical impedance tomography can provide important information to tailor the respiratory therapies.

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A Fatal Case of Community Acquired Cupriavidus Pauculus Pneumonia

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0027

Introduction: Cupriavidus pauculus is a rarely isolated non-fermentative, aerobic bacillus, which occasionally causes severe human infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Strains have been isolated from various clinical and environmental sources.
Case presentation: A 67-year-old man was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute respiratory failure. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral pneumonia, pulmonary sepsis and underwent invasive mechanical ventilation. Examination revealed diminished bilateral vesicular breath sounds, fever, intense yellow tracheal secretions, a respiratory rate of 24/minute, a heart rate of 123/minute, and blood pressure of 75/55 mmHg. Vasoactive treatment was initiated. Investigations revealed elevated lactate and C-reactive protein levels. A chest X-ray showed bilateral infiltration. Parenteral ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were administered. Tracheal aspirate culture and blood culture showed bacterial growth of Cupriavidus pauculus. Colistin was added to the treatment. There was a poor clinical response despite repeated blood culture showing negative results. The diagnosis of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) caused by C. pauculus was made. The patient died eleven days after admission.
Conclusions: Clinical improvement cannot always be expected in spite of targeted antibiotic therapy. This pathogen should be considered responsible for infections that usually develop in immunocompromised patients.

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