Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
Introduction: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) receiving ventilation or pulmonary support via veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) can be infected with drug-resistant bacteria. When introducing VV-ECMO, the changes in serum antibiotic concentration should be considered due to an increased volume of distribution (Vd). However, no pharmacokinetic study has assessed teicoplanin (TEIC) treatment in patients with COVID-19 receiving VV-ECMO. Case presentation: A 71-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 visited a primary hospital. His oxygenation conditions worsened despite treatment with favipiravir and methylprednisolone as well as oxygen therapy. After his transfer to our center, tracheal intubation and steroid pulse therapy were initiated. Seven days after admission, VV-ECMO was performed. TEIC was administered for secondary bacterial infection. The serum TEIC concentration remained within the therapeutic range, indicating that VV-ECMO did not significantly affect TEIC pharmacokinetics. VV-ECMO was discontinued 17 days after admission. However, he developed multi-organ disorder and died 42 days after admission. Conclusion: As TEIC prevents viral invasion, it may be used with ECMO in patients with COVID-19 requiring ventilation; however, the altered pharmacokinetics of TEIC, such as increased Vd, should be considered. Therefore, TEIC pharmacokinetics in VV-ECMO should be assessed in future studies with an appropriate number of patients.
Lorena Elena Melit1, Oana Marginean1, Tudor Fleșeriu2, Alina Negrea3, Maria Oana Săsăran4, Simina Ghiraghosian-Rusu4, Andrei Călin Dragomir5, Mirela Oiaga6, Carmen Șuteu7
1. Discipline of Pediatrics I, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania 2. Discipline of Infectious Disease I, Mures County Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania 3. Pediatrics Clinic, Emergency County Hospital Targu-Mures, Romania 4. Discipline of Pediatrics III, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania 5. George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania 6. Emergency County Hospital Targu Mures, Romania 7. Pediatrics Cardiology Clinic, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases Targu Mures, Romania
Introduction: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) is a rare life-threatening condition requiring a complex management and multidisciplinary approach, whose outcome depends on the early diagnosis. Case report: We report the case of a 2 years and-5-month-old boy admitted in our clinic for fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea. The clinical exam at the time of admission revealed influenced gen-eral status, bilateral palpebral edema and conjunctivitis, mucocutaneous signs of dehydration, and abdominal tenderness at palpation. The laboratory tests performed pointed out lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, elevated C-reactive protein – CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ferritin levels, hyponatremia, hypopotassemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated D-dimer, in-creased troponin and NT-proBNP. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was negative, but the serology was positive. Thus, established the diagnosis of PIMS-TS. We initiated intravenous immunoglobulin, empirical antibiotic, anticoagulation therapy and symptomatic drugs. Nevertheless, the clinical course and laboratory parameters worsened, and the 2nd echocardiography pointed out minimal pericardial effusion, slight dilation of the left cavities, dyskinesia of the inferior and septal basal segments of the left ventricle (LV), and LV systolic dysfunction. Therefore, we associated intravenous methylprednisolone, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide, with outstanding favorable evolution. Conclusions: Echocardiographic monitoring might be a lifesaving diagnostic tool in the management of PIMS-TS.
Christian C Toquica Gahona, Ashwin Kodagnur Bharadwaj, Monarch Shah, Umesh Bhagat, Paul Sterman, William Vasquez
Saint Peter’s University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
Caffeine, chemically 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is the most widely consumed central nervous system stimulant in the world with pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal systems. The advent of over the counter (OTC) caffeine formulations has opened the window for potential toxicity, either by inadvertent or intentional overdosing. We present the case of a patient who attempted suicide by caffeine overdose treated with emergent haemodialysis and a review of the literature.
Ioan Tilea1,2, Robert Adrian Dumbrava1,2, Alexandra Mihaela Ratiu1,3, Marius Mihai Harpa1,4, Cosmin Marian Banceu1,4, Dorina Nastasia Petra1,2, Horatiu Suciu1,4
1 George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania 2 Department of Internal Medicine II – Cardiology II, Emergency Clinical County Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania 3 Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Emergency Clinical County Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania 4 Cardiac Surgery Clinic, The Emergency Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases and Transplantation, Targu Mures, Romania
Background: An intrapericardial organized haematoma secondary to chronic type A aortic dissection is an extremely rare cause of right heart failure. Imaging studies are essential in recognising and diagnosis of this distinctive medical condition and guiding the anticipated treatment. Case presentation: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted for progressive symptoms of right heart failure. His cardiovascular history exposed an aortic valve replacement 22 years before with a Medtronic Hall 23 tilting valve with no regular follow-up. Classical signs of congestion were recognized at physical examination. Transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography and thoraco-abdominal computed tomography angiography, as essential parts of multimodality imaging algorithm, established the underlying cause of right heart failure. Under total cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest, surgical removal of the haematoma and proximal repair of the ascending aorta with a patient-matched vascular graft were successfully performed. The patient was discharged in good condition with appropriate pharmacological treatment, guideline-directed; no imagistic signs of acute post-surgery complications were ascertained. Conclusion: This paper highlights the importance of recognizing and providing a timely clinical and imagistic diagnosis of this very rare, potentially avoidable cause of right heart failure in patients with previous cardiac surgery.
Amalia Făgărășan, Hamida Al Hussein, Simina Elena Ghiragosian Rusu
George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a dominant autosomal disease, caused by mutations in genes involved in cell differentiation, growth and senescence, one of them being RAF1 mutation. Congenital heart disease may influence the prognosis of the disease. Case presentation: We report a case of an 18 month-old female patient who presented to our institute at the age of 2 months when she was diagnosed with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, pulmonary infundibular and pulmonary valve stenosis, a small atrial septal defect and extrasystolic arrhythmia. She was born from healthy parents, a non-consanguineous marriage. Due to suggestive phenotype for NS molecular genetic testing for RASopathies was performed in a center abroad, establishing the presence of RAF-1 mutation. Following rapid progression of cardiac abnormalities, the surgical correction was performed at 14 months of age. In the early postoperative period, the patient developed episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia with hemodynamic instability, for which associated treatment was instituted with successful conversion to sinus rhythm. At 3-month follow-up, the patient was hemodynamically stable in sinus rhythm. Conclusions: The presented case report certifies the importance of recognizing the genetic mutation in patients with NS, which allows predicting the severity of cardiac abnormalities and therefore establishing a proper therapeutic management of these patients.
Illaa Smesseim1, Titia Schaepman-Ruys1, Jan Willem Duitman1,2, Yosta Vegting3, Jorinde Raasveld4, Marc Hilhorst3, Alexander Vlaar4, Josien van Es1, Peter Bonta1
1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam and Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 Department of Experimental Immunology (EXIM), Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Location Meibergdreef Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands 4 Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Introduction: Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a potentially life-threatening disease, characterized by diffuse accumulation of red blood cells within the alveoli. It can be caused by a variety of disorders. In case DAH results in severe respiratory failure, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) can be required. Since VV-ECMO coincides with the need for anticoagulation therapy, this results in a major clinical challenge in DAH patients with hemoptysis. Case presentation: We report a patient case with severe DAH-induced acute respiratory failure and hemoptysis in need for VV-ECMO complicated by life-threatening membrane oxygenator thrombosis. The DAH-induced hemoptysis was successfully treated with local bronchoscopic recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), allowing systemic anticoagulation to prevent further membrane oxygenator thrombosis. Neither systemic clinical side effects nor differences in the serum coagulation markers occured after applying recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) treatment endobronchially. Conclusion: This is, to our knowledge, the first case that reports the use of rFVIIa in a patient with DAH due to vasculitis and in need for VV-ECMO complicated by membrane oxygenator thrombosis.
Alexandra Iulia Stoica1,2, Marius Harpa1, Cosmin Marian Banceu1,2, Judith Kovacs1,2, Horatiu Suciu1,2
1 George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures 2 Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases and Heart Transplantation, Targu Mures, Romania
Postoperative coronary vasospasm is a well-known cause of angina that may lead to myocardial infarction if not treated promptly. We report a case of a 70-year-old female with severe mitral regurgitation submitted to mitral valve replacement, and a history of diabetes mellitus type II, stroke, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura on steroid therapy, and previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severe obstruction of the circumflex coronary artery, 4 months prior to surgery. Immediately after intensive care unit admission, the patient developed pulseless electrical activity which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for hemodynamic support. The coronary angiography showed diffuse occlusive coronary artery vasospasm, ameliorated after intra-coronary administration of nitroglycerin. The following postoperative evolution was marked by cardiogenic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Subsequent echocardiographic findings showed an increase in left ventricular function with an EF of 40%, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support was weaned after seven days. However, after a few hours, the patient progressively deteriorated, with cardiac arrest and no response to resuscitation maneuvers. Hemodynamic instability following the surgical procedure in a patient with previous PCI associated with an autoimmune disease and diabetes mellitus should raise the suspicion of a coronary artery vasospasm.
Lucian Mihalcea1, Isac Sebastian2, Mihail Simion-Cotorogea1, Artsiom Klimko3, Gabriela Droc1
1 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care I, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania 2 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty of Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania 3 Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Introdution: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare reversible type of heart failure, often precipitated by emotional stress; other risk factors include intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, sepsis, major surgery, pheochromocytoma. The clinical, electrical and blood sample analysis features resemble those of a myocardial infarction- however, they occur in the absence of angiographic coronary filling defects. Case presentation: A 61-year-old male patient, 71 kg, 175 cm, underwent liver transplantation for Child-Pugh B cirrhosis secondary to mixed viral hepatitis (B and D). His medical records revealed mild mitral, aortic, and tricuspid insufficiencies and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. An initially uneventful perioperative stage was succeeded by cardiogenic shock (cardiac index – 1.2 l/min/sqm), which the patient developed 24 hours after the intervention. Elevated cardiac markers and ECG abnormalities showing ST-T changes in the V2-V5 leads were additionally noted. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed an acute onset reduction in the left ventricular systolic function secondary to basal hypokinesia. No coronary obstruction was detected by percutaneous angiography. The above findings lead to the diagnosis of reverseTakotsubo cardiomyopathy. Further, the patient developed acute kidney injury and liver graft failure, succumbing within 48 hours after the surgical procedure. Conclusions: We report a rare case of reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a male patient after orthotopic liver transplant.
Derrick Anthony Cleland1, Clarence H. H. Tsai2, Joslyn Vo1, Dafne Moretta1
1 Loma Linda University Medical Center Loma Linda, CA, USA 2 Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA
Introduction: Silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) injections are used for cosmetic augmentation. Their use is associated with life-threatening complications such as acute pneumonitis, alveolar hemorrhage, and acute respiratory distress among others [1,2]. We report a case of a Hispanic woman who developed severe respiratory distress syndrome after gluteal silicone injections. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department complaining of progressive dyspnea on exertion for two weeks. Chest imaging revealed patchy bibasilar airspace opacities of peripheral distribution. Labs were significant for leukocytosis, elevated PT, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and fibrinogen, concerning for COVID-19, however SARS-CoV-2 testing was negative multiple times. The patient later became encephalopathic, hypoxemic, and eventually required intubation. Further history uncovered that the patient had received illicit gluteal silicone injections a few days prior to her onset of symptoms. The patient was diagnosed with silicone embolism syndrome (SES) and initiated on high dose intravenous methylprednisolone . Case Discussion: Patients from lower socioeconomic backgrounds utilize illicit services to receive silicone injections at minimal costs. This leads to dangerous outcomes. The serology and imaging findings observed in our case have similarities to the typical presentation of COVID-19 pneumonia making the initial diagnosis difficult. This case serves as a cautionary tale of the importance of thorough history taking in patients with concern for COVID-19.
Sarah A. Bachman, Ryan S. Peterson, Peter S. Burrage, Leigh C Hickerson
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA
Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma in the setting of catecholamine-induced heart failure requires careful consideration of hemodynamic optimization and possible mechanical circulatory support. A Jehovah’s Witness patient with catecholamine-induced acutely decompensated heart failure required dependable afterload reduction for a cardio-protective strategy. This was emphasized due to the relative contraindication to perioperative anticoagulation required for mechanical circulatory support. A phenylephrine challenge clearly demonstrated adequate alpha blockade after only 24 hours of phenoxybenzamine treatment. This resulted in advancement of the surgery date. This case also highlights management of beta blockade, volume and salt loading, autologous blood transfusion, and profound post-operative vasoplegia in the setting of cardiogenic shock. Careful attention to hemodynamic optimization and cardio-protective strategies ultimately resulted in positive outcome for this challenging clinical scenario.
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