Tag Archives: children

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, not so Uncommon in Pediatric Patients with Renal Involvement: A Case Series

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0004

Introduction: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) primarily shows neurological symptoms and is more frequent in males, often occurring in oncological patients. It can also be associated with renal conditions like post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, a common cause of pediatric hypertension. Management involves blood pressure and seizure treatment. In some cases, it may lead to irreversible and severe complications. Early treatment is essential for prevention.
Presentation of case series: In the past six months, we have documented the cases of two patients, aged 15 and 10, both of whom presented with PRES and renal disease. These patients were admitted because of general malaise, headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, and elevated blood pressure. Subsequently, both patients experienced epileptic episodes. Only the first patient required transfer to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans revealed distinct PRES lesions in both cases. Following comprehensive investigations, both cases were diagnosed with PRES in the context of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
Conclusions: The patients showed improvement following the administration of antihypertensive and anticonvulsant medications, along with treatment for the underlying renal condition.

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A Retrospective Cohort Study of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children: A Single-Institution Experience and Determinants of Neurologic Outcome

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0027

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant cause of death and morbidity in childhood since the elucidation of infectious causes within the last century. Mortality rates in this population decreased over time due to developments in technology and effective treatment modalities.
Aim of the study: This retrospective cohort study aimed to describe the volume, severity and mechanism of all hospital-admitted pediatric TBI patients at a university hospital over a 5-year period. Material and
Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study including 90 pediatric patients with TBI admitted to a tertiary care PICU. The patients’ demographic data, injury mechanisms, disease and trauma severity scores, initiation of enteral nutrition and outcome measures such as hospital stay, PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were also recorded. Late enteral nutrition was defined as initiation of enteral feeding after 48 hours of hospitalization.
Results: Of the 90 patients included in the cohort, 60% had mild TBI, 21.1% had moderate TBI and 18.9% had severe TBI. Their mean age was 69 months (3-210 months). TBI was isolated in 34 (37.8%) patients and observed as a part of multisystemic trauma in 56 (62.2%). The most commonly involved site in multisystemic injury was the thorax (33.3%). The length of hospitalization in the late enteral nutrition group was significantly higher than that in the early nutrition group, while the PICU stay was not significantly different between the two groups. The multiple logistic regression analysis found a significant relationship between GOS-3rd month and PIM3 score, the presence of diffuse axonal injury and the need for CPR in the first 24 h of hospitalization.
Conclusion: Although our study showed that delayed enteral nutrition did not affect neurologic outcome, it may lead to prolonged hospitalization and increased hospital costs. High PIM3 scores and diffuse axonal injury are both associated with worse neurologic outcomes.

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Acute Pulmonary Embolism in a Teenage Female – A Case Report

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2018-0015

Thrombophilia represents a tendency towards excessive blood clotting and the subsequent development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is a rare condition in children that comprises both deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). This paper reports the case of a 16-year-old girl, admitted to the Pediatrics Clinic No. 1, Tîrgu Mureș, Romania, for dyspnea, chest pain and loss of consciousness. Her personal history showed that she had had two orthopedic surgical interventions in infancy, two pregnancies, one spontaneous miscarriage and a recent caesarian section at 20 weeks of gestation for premature detachment of a normally positioned placenta associated with a deceased fetus. Laboratory tests showed increased levels of D-dimers. Angio-Computed Tomography (Angio-CT) showed multiple filling defects in both pulmonary arteries, establishing the diagnosis of PE. The laboratory tests were undertaken to assist in the diagnoses of a possible thrombophilia underlined a low level of antithrombin III. Antiphospholipid syndrome was ruled out and genetic tests revealed no specific mutation. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated with unfractionated heparin and afterwards subcutaneously low molecular heparin was prescribed for three months. Later it has been changed to oral therapy with acenocoumarol. The patient was discharged in good general status with the recommendation of life-long anticoagulation therapy. Thrombophilia is a significant risk factor for PE, and it must be ruled out in all cases of repeated miscarriage.

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Brain Death in Children: Incidence, Donation Rates, and the Occurrence of Central Diabetes Insipidus

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2018-0005

Introduction: Brain death is currently defined as the loss of full brain function including the brainstem. The diagnosis and its subsequent management in the pediatric population are still controversial. The aim of this study was to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of patients with brain death and determine the incidence of brain death, donation rates and occurrence of central diabetes insipidus accompanying brain death in children.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a twelve-bed tertiary-care combined medical and surgical pediatric intensive care unit of the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey. In 37 of 341 deaths (10.8%), a diagnosis of brain death was identified. The primary insult causing brain death was post-cardiorespiratory arrest in 8 (21.6%), head trauma in 8 (21.6%), and drowning in 4 (18.9%). In all patients, transcranial Doppler ultrasound was utilised as an ancillary test and test was repeated until it was consistent with brain death.
Results: In 33 (89%) patients, central diabetes insipidus was determined at or near the time brain death was confirmed. The four patients not diagnosed with CDI had acute renal failure, and renal replacement treatment was carried out. The consent rate for organ donation was 18.9%, and 16.7% of potential donors proceeded to actual donation
Conclusion: In the current study the consent rate for organ donation is relatively low compared to the rest of the world. The prevalence of central diabetes insipidus in this pedaitric brain death population is higher than reports in the literature, and acute renal failure accounted for the lack of central diabetes insipidus in four patients with brain death. Further studies are needed to explain normouria in brain-dead patients.

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