Tag Archives: diabetes insipidus

Transient Diabetes Insipidus Following Organophosphorus Poisoning

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2019-0023

Introduction: Organophosphorus poisoning is the most common poison used for suicidal attempt in Nepal. Diabetes insipidus is unusual and rare in this poisoning. This is the second case report of Diabetes insipidus developing in organophosphorus poisoning. Management of diabetes insipidus includes desmopressin and adequate fluid management.
Case presentation: A 34-year-old female patient accompanied by her father presented at the Emergency department with an alleged history of ingestion of unknown amount of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and quinalphos. On admission, she had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 7/15. Her blood pressure was 110/60 mm Hg, pulse 54/min, respiratory rate 45/min and saturation 35% on room air, pinpoint pupil reactive to light and bilateral crepitations. She was immediately resuscitated with two litres of normal saline and intubated with a 7 mm endotracheal tube. Atropinisation was done, and pralidoxime was started. She developed a urine output of 250-350 ml per hour with rising sodium and serum osmolality. The urine examination showed low sodium and urine specific gravity. A diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was made. There was no immediate improvement in her GCS. She was managed with 5% dextrose and subcutaneous desmopressin and was transferred out of the intensive care unit on the sixth day and was discharged from hospital on the fifteenth day.
Conclusion: Diabetes insipidus is a rare transient complication in organophosphorus poisoning that requires careful observation and early management with desmopressin and adequate fluid balance to improve patient outcome.

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Brain Death in Children: Incidence, Donation Rates, and the Occurrence of Central Diabetes Insipidus

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2018-0005

Introduction: Brain death is currently defined as the loss of full brain function including the brainstem. The diagnosis and its subsequent management in the pediatric population are still controversial. The aim of this study was to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcomes of patients with brain death and determine the incidence of brain death, donation rates and occurrence of central diabetes insipidus accompanying brain death in children.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at a twelve-bed tertiary-care combined medical and surgical pediatric intensive care unit of the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey. In 37 of 341 deaths (10.8%), a diagnosis of brain death was identified. The primary insult causing brain death was post-cardiorespiratory arrest in 8 (21.6%), head trauma in 8 (21.6%), and drowning in 4 (18.9%). In all patients, transcranial Doppler ultrasound was utilised as an ancillary test and test was repeated until it was consistent with brain death.
Results: In 33 (89%) patients, central diabetes insipidus was determined at or near the time brain death was confirmed. The four patients not diagnosed with CDI had acute renal failure, and renal replacement treatment was carried out. The consent rate for organ donation was 18.9%, and 16.7% of potential donors proceeded to actual donation
Conclusion: In the current study the consent rate for organ donation is relatively low compared to the rest of the world. The prevalence of central diabetes insipidus in this pedaitric brain death population is higher than reports in the literature, and acute renal failure accounted for the lack of central diabetes insipidus in four patients with brain death. Further studies are needed to explain normouria in brain-dead patients.

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