Managing Multifactorial Deep Vein Thrombosis in an Adolescent: A Complex Case Report

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0024

Introduction: Although rarely diagnosed in the pediatric population, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is experiencing a growing incidence, while continuously acquiring different nuances due to the widening range of risk factors and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents.
Case presentation: A 17-year-old female within four weeks after child delivery was admitted to our clinic due to a six-month history of pain in the left hypochondriac region. After a thorough evaluation, the presence of a benign splenic cyst was revealed, which was later surgically removed. Following the intervention, the patient developed secondary thrombocytosis and bloodstream infection which, together with pre-existing risk factors (obesity, compressive effect of a large cyst, the postpartum period, the presence of a central venous catheter, recent surgery, and post-operative mobilization difficulties) led to the occurrence of extensive DVT, despite anticoagulant prophylaxis and therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin.
Conclusions: DVT raises many challenges for the pediatrician, requiring a personalized approach. Although rare, pediatric patients with multiple concomitant high-risk factors should benefit from interdisciplinary care as DVT may not respond to standard therapy in such cases and rapidly become critical. Continual efforts to better understand and treat this condition will contribute to improved outcomes for pediatric patients affected by DVT.

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