Tag Archives: sepsis

Early lactate clearance as a determinant of survival in patients with sepsis: Findings from a low-resource country

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0005

Background: Single lactate measurements have been reported to have prognostic significance, however, there is a lack of data in local literature from Pakistan. This study was done to determine prognostic role of lactate clearance in sepsis patients being managed in our lower-middle income country.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2019-February 2020 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Patients were enrolled using consecutive sampling and categorized based on their lactate clearance status. Lactate clearance was defined as decrease by 10% or greater in repeat lactate from the initial measurement (or both initial and repeat levels <=2.0 mmol/L).
Results: A total 198 patients were included in the study, 51% (101) were male. Multi-organ dysfunction was reported in 18.6% (37), 47.7% (94) had single organ dysfunction, and 33.8% (67) had no organ dysfunction. Around 83% (165) were discharged and 17% (33) died. There were missing data for 25.8% (51) of the patients for the lactate clearance, whereas 55% (108) patients had early lactate clearance and 19.7% (39) had delayed lactate clearance. On univariate analysis, mortality rate was higher in patients with delayed lactate clearance (38.4% vs 16.6%) and patients were 3.12 times (OR = 3.12; [95% CI: 1.37-7.09]) more likely to die as compared with early lactate clearance. Patients with delayed lactate clearance had higher organ dysfunction(79.4% vs 60.1%) and were 2.56 (OR = 2.56; [95% CI: 1.07-6.13]) times likely to have organ dysfunction . On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age and co-morbids, patients with delayed lactate clearance were 8 times more likely to die than patients with early lactate clearance [aOR = 7.67; 95% CI:1.11-53.26], however, there was no statistically significant association between delayed lactate clearance [aOR = 2.18; 95% CI: 0.87-5.49)] and organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Lactate clearance is a better determinant of sepsis and septic shock effective management. Early lactate clearance is related to better outcomes in septic patients.

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Successful Extracorporeal Blood Purification Therapy Using Double Haemoadsorption Device in Severe Endotoxin Septic Shock: A Case Report

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2022-0028

Introduction: In patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), sepsis can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI), which may require the initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in 15-20% of cases. There is no consensus about the best extracorporeal treatment to choose in septic patients with AKI.
Case presentation: We describe the case of a 70-year-old woman admitted to the ICU with a severe endotoxin septic shock due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. Despite prompt medical intervention, including fluid resuscitation, high dose vasopressor, inotrope support, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment, in a few hours patient’s haemodynamic worsened and she developed multi-organ failure, including severe AKI, requiring CRRT. So, continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration was started, using an oXiris® haemodiafilter set, in series with an adsorber device (CytoSorb®). After 48 hours of this combined extracorporeal treatment, haemodynamic parameters improved, allowing a significant reduction of the vasoactive therapy, with a concomitant decrease in endotoxin and inflammatory markers serum levels. In the following days patient’s conditions still improved and renal function recovered.
Conclusions: Timely extracorporeal blood purification therapy, using a double haemoadsorption device, may be effective in the management of severe septic shock.

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Dubito ergo sum. Pathologies that can mimic sepsis

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2022-0011

Sepsis is a potentially deadly organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, with a high mortality rate [1]. Generally, sepsis is acquired in the community, and its development is slow, making diagnosis challenging. Early broad-spectrum antibiotics and effective source management improve prognosis [1, 2].
Sepsis has a huge financial impact on the health-care system; septic patient treatment in the United States alone is projected to cost more than $20 billion per year. The cost in human life is equally high; mortality rates in sepsis and septic shock are believed to be more than 10% and 40%, respectively [3]. Sepsis is one of the most prevalent causes for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and the leading cause of mortality in ICUs across the globe [3, 4]. [More]

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The Diagnostic and Prognostic Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C in Sepsis and Septic Shock

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0020

Introduction: Variations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could be used as a biomarker in critically ill patients with sepsis and septic shock. Inflammation potently upregulates VEGF-C expression via macrophages with an unpredictable response. This study aimed to assess one of the newer biomarkers (VEGF-C) in patients with sepsis or septic shock and its clinical value as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.
Material and methods: The study involved 142 persons divided into three groups. Group A consisted of fifty-eight patients with sepsis; Group B consisted of forty-nine patients diagnosed as having septic shock according to the Sepsis -3 criteria. A control group of thirty-five healthy volunteers comprised Group C. Severity scores, prognostic score and organ dysfunction score, were recorded at the time of enrolment in the study. The analysis included specificity and sensitivity of plasma VEGF-C for diagnosis of septic shock. Circulating plasma VEGF-C levels were correlated with the APACHE II, MODS and severity scores and mortality.
Results: The mean (SD) plasma VEGF-C levels in septic shock patients (1374(789) pg./m), on vasopressors at the time of admission to the ICU, were significantly higher 1374(789)pg./mL, compared the mean (SD) plasma VEGF-C levels in sepsis patients (934(468) pg./mL); (p = 0.0005, Student’s t-test.) Plasma VEGF-C levels in groups A and B were shown to be significantly correlated with the APACHE II (r = 0.21, p = 0.02; r = 0.45, p = 0.0009) and MODS score (r = 0.29, p = 0.03; r = 0.4, p = 0.003). There was no association between plasma VEGF-C levels and mortality [p = 0.1]. The cut-off value for septic shock was 1010 pg./ml.
Conclusions: VEGF-C may be used as a prognostic marker in sepsis and septic shock due to its correlation with APACHE II values and as an early marker to determine the likelihood of developing MODS. It could be used as an early biomarker for diagnosing patients with septic shock.

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To Be or Not to Be… Sepsis? A Daily Challenge in ICU

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0012

Nowadays, one of the most challenging medical issues is related to high morbidity and mortality in sepsis and septic shock. Despite the medical progress regarding early diagnosis and management, this complex pathology remains a life-threatening condition. During the last decades, many definitions and including criteria were developed both in sepsis and septic shock, principally as many early biomarkers became available. However, many issues still exist regarding this subject.
The clinical definitions of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) have been refined, but both conditions manifest with similar clinical features [1]. The Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as “a life-threatening organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated host response to infection”. Septic shock is “a subset of sepsis in which circulatory, cellular and metabolic alterations are associated with a higher mortality rate than sepsis alone” [2] morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation. These definitions are related to the pathophysiology of sepsis, which are the cornerstones of a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and disorders that occur [3]. [More]

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Prevalence and Prognostic Impact of Hypernatremia in Sepsis and Septic Shock Patients in The Intensive Care Unit: A Single Centre Experience

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0001

Introduction: Hypernatremia is a commonly associated electrolyte disturbance in sepsis and septic shock patients in the ICU. The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic value of hypernatremia in sepsis and septic shock.
Material and Methods: A prospective study conducted on sepsis and septic shock patients diagnosed prior to admission in the ICU in King Hamad University Hospital, Bahrain from January 1st 2017 to February 28th 2019. Data including age, sex, comorbidities, source of sepsis, sodium levels on days one, three, and seven. Data was correlated with the outcome (survival/death and the length of ICU stay).
Results: Patients included were 168, 110 survived, and 58 died. Hypernatraemia at day seven was associated with significantly higher mortality (P= 0.03). Hypernatraemia at Day1was associated with a significantly prolonged stay in the ICU (p= 0.039).Multivariate analysis to identify the independent predictors of mortality revealed that immunosuppression and hypernatraemia at Day7 proved to be independent predictors of mortality (P= 0.026 and 0.039 respectively).
Conclusion: Hypernatremia can be an independent predictor of poor outcome in septic and septic shock patients in the ICU.

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The Dynamical Assessment of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Predicting the Outcome of Septic Patients and the Response to Antimicrobial Therapy

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2020-0004

Aims: To evaluate the kinetics of inflammatory biomarkers in septic patients in order to identify the most reliable predictor of unfavorable outcome.
Methods: A prospective analysis of septic patients was performed. Median levels of neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were dynamically assessed and comparatively analyzed.
Results: Seventy-seven patients were included. Descendent kinetic patterns were registered for all biomarkers, except C-reactive protein. At 24 hours, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio significantly decreased in 42.85% of cases, procalcitonin in 37.33%, C-reactive protein in 16.12% and fibrinogen in 1.58% of cases. At 72 hours, procalcitonin decreased to one-half in 70% of cases and neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio in 67.53% of cases.
Conclusions: Neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin significantly decreased in the first 72 hours, while C-reactive protein increased in the first 24 hours. The proportions of patients with major decrease of baseline values were higher for neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin.

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SIRS Triggered by Acute Right Ventricular Function, Mimicked Septic Shock

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2019-0022

Background: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a complex immune response which can be precipitated by non-infectious aetiologies such as trauma, burns or pancreatitis. Addressing the underlying cause is crucial because it can be associated with increased mortality. Although the current literature associates chronic heart failure with SIRS, acute right ventricular dysfunction has not previously been reported to trigger SIRS. This case report describes the presentation of acute right ventricular dysfunction that triggered SIRS and mimicked septic shock.
Case presentation: A 70-year-old male presented to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with elevated inflammatory markers and refractory hypotension after a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical choledochectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy. Septic shock was misdiagnosed, and he was later found to have a pulmonary embolus. Thrombectomy and antimicrobials had no significant effect on lowering the elevated inflammatory markers or improving the persistent hypotension. Through Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS), right ventricular dysfunction was diagnosed. Treatment with intravenous milrinone improved blood pressure, normalised inflammatory markers and led to a prompt discharge from the ICU.
Conclusion: Acute right ventricular dysfunction can trigger SIRS, which may mimic septic shock and delay appropriate treatment.

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The Use of High Dose Eltrombopag in the Management of Sepsis-Associated Thrombocytopenia in Critically Ill Patients

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2019-0019

Introduction: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition, and sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia (SAT) is a common consequence of the disease where platelet count falls drastically within a very short time. Multiple key factors may cause platelet over-activation, destruction and reduction in platelet production during the sepsis. Eltrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist and is the second-line drug of choice in the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to observe the therapeutic outcome of high dose eltrombopag in SAT management in critically ill patients.
Material and Methods: This 6-month-long single group, observational study was conducted on seventeen ICU patients with SAT. Eltrombopag 100 mg/day in two divided doses was given to each patient. Platelet counts were monitored. A low platelet blood count returning to 150 K/μL or above, is taken as indicative of a successful reversal of a thrombocytopenia event.
Results: The mean Apache II score of patients (n= 17) was 18.71 (p-value: >0.05). No eltrombopag-induced adverse event was observed among the patients during the study period. Thrombocytopenia events were reversed successfully in 64.71% of patients (11; n= 17) within eight days of eltrombopag therapy.
Conclusions: The therapeutic potentiality of high dose eltrombopag regime in the management of sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia was found clinically significant in over two-thirds of critically ill adult patients enrolled in the study. These data may point to a new strategy in the management of acute type of thrombocytopenia in septic patients.

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Precision Medicine and its Role in the Treatment of Sepsis: A Personalised View

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2019-0017

In recent years, a new form of medicine has become increasingly significant, namely, personalised medicine (PM). PM is a form of care in which treatment is tailored for an individual patient.
PM is about using multiple data sets to create a digital human mapping. A person’s biological traits are determined by the interactions of hundreds of genes and gene networks, as well as external factors such as diet and exercise. Combining and then investigating these multiple databases with powerful statistical tools, allows a new understanding of how genetic intricacy drives health and disease and so leads to a closer personalised medical approach that targets each individual’s unique genetic make-up.
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, ranging from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). Sepsis is the most common cause of death in intensive care patients. Treatments in an ICU may need to be adapted to the continuous and rapid changes of the disease, making it challenging to identify a single target. PM is thus seen as the future of sepsis treatment in the ICU.
The fact that individual patients respond differently to treatment should be regarded as a starting point in the approach to providing treatment. The disease itself comes secondary to this concept.

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