The Utility of Serial Lipid Measurements as a Potential Predictor of Sepsis Outcome: A Prospective Observational Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital

DOI: 10.2478jccm-2024-0015

Background and aim: Sepsis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality for patients admitted to an intensive care unit worldwide. Currently, Procalcitonin (PCT) is a widely used prognostic marker for sepsis. The high cost of estimating Procalcitonin limits its utility in all health facilities. Lipid Profile, being a frequently done routine investigation, is studied in sepsis patients to predict the prognosis of sepsis. This study was aimed to assess the association between lipid profile parameters, procalcitonin and clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis.
Materials and methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We included 80 sepsis patients from medical and surgical ICUs. Among them, 59 (74%) survived and 21 (26%) expired. Serum lipid profile, procalcitonin and variables required for APACHE II score are measured at two intervals, one during admission and on day 5. All the parameters were compared between the survivors and the non-survivors.
Results: Serum PCT levels were reduced on Day 5 [3.32 (1.27-11.86)] compared to Day 0 [13.42 (5.77-33.18)] in survivors. In survivors, Total Cholesterol, LDL-C and Non-HDL-C were significantly elevated on Day 5 compared to Day 0. In non-survivors, HDL-C significantly decreased on Day 5. Between survivors and non-survivors, HDL-C significantly decreased on Day 5 (23.88 ± 10.19 vs 16.67 ± 8.27 mg/dl). A Negative correlation was observed between HDL-C & PCT.
Conclusion: Serum Lipid profile levels, namely Total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C, have possible associations with the severity of sepsis. HDL-C have a negative association with the clinical scoring system in sepsis patients. Overall, the findings from our study suggest that lipid profile parameters have possible implications in predicting the outcome of patients with sepsis.

Full text: PDF