Bianca‐Liana Grigorescu1, Oana Coman2, Anca Meda Văsieșiu3, Anca Bacârea4, Marius Petrișor2, Irina Săplăcan5, Raluca Ștefania Fodor1
1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Simulation Applied in Medicine, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
3 Department of Infectious Diseases, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
4 Department of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
5 County Emergency Clinical Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania
Introduction: Proper management of sepsis poses a challenge even today, with early diagnosis and targeted treatment being the most important steps. Easy, cost-effective bedside tools are needed in order to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis or septic shock. Aim of study: This study aims to find a correlation between Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) severity scores, the Neutrophil-Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR) and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in septic or septic shock patients with the scope of establishing a bed side cost-effective prognostic tool. Materials and methods: A pilot, prospective, observational, and ongoing study was conducted on 61 patients admitted with sepsis or septic shock according to the SEPSIS 3 Consensus definition. We followed clinical and paraclinical parameters on day 1 (D1) and day 5 (D5) after meeting the inclusion criteria. Results: On D1 we found a statistically significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), r = 0.7287 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.5841-0.8285, r = 0.6862 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.5251-0.7998 and r = 0.8534 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.7663 to 0.9097. On D5 we observed similar results: a significant positive correlation between each severity score (p <0.0001), with r = 0.7877 for SOFA vs. APACHE II with CI: 0.6283 to 0.8836, r = 0.8210 for SOFA vs. SAPS II with CI: 0.6822 to 0.9027 and r = 0.8880 for APACHE II vs. SAPS II., CI: 0.7952 to 0.9401. Nil correlation was found between the severity scores, NLR and COHb on D1 and D5. Conclusion: Cost-effective bedside tools to pinpoint towards the outcome of sepsis are yet to be found, however the positive correlation between the severity scores point out to a combination of such tools for prognosis prediction of septic or septic shock patients.
Carlos Sanchez E.1, Michael R. Pinsky2, Sharmili Sinha3, Rajesh Chandra Mishra4, Ahsina Jahan Lopa5, Ranajit Chatterjee6
1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, King Salman Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
3 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Apollo Hospitals, Bhubaneswar, India
4 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Ahmedabad Khyati Multi-speciality Hospitals, Ahmedabad, India. Department of Critical Care Medicine, Ahmedabad Shaibya Comprehensive Care Clinic, Ahmedabad, India
5 ICU and Emergency Department, Shahabuddin Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
6 Department of Critical Care Medicine, accident and emergency, Swami Dayanand Hospital Delhi, India
Septic shock is a common condition associated with hypotension and organ dysfunction. It is associated with high mortality rates of up to 60% despite the best recommended resuscitation strategies in international guidelines. Patients with septic shock generally have a Mean Arterial Pressure below 65 mmHg and hypotension is the most important determinant of mortality among this group of patients. The extent and duration of hypotension are important. The two initial options that we have are 1) administration of intravenous (IV) fluids and 2) vasopressors, The current recommendation of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines to administer 30 ml/kg fluid cannot be applied to all patients. Complications of fluid over-resuscitation further delay organ recovery, prolong ICU and hospital length of stay, and increase mortality. The only reason for administering intravenous fluids in a patient with circulatory shock is to increase the mean systemic filling pressure in a patient who is volume-responsive, such that cardiac output also increases. The use of vasopressors seems to be a more appropriate strategy, the very early administration of vasopressors, preferably during the first hour after diagnosis of septic shock, may have a multimodal action and potential advantages, leading to lower morbidity and mortality in the management of septic patients. Vasopressor therapy should be initiated as soon as possible in patients with septic shock.
Emoke Almasy1, Janos Szederjesi1, Bianca Liana Grigorescu2, Iudita Badea1,
Marius Petrisor3, Cristina Manasturean4, Valentina Negrea4, Agota-Evelyn Timar1,
Oana Coman1, Leonard Azamfirei1, Ario Santini5, Sanda Maria Copotoiu1
1 Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Discipline of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
3 Department of Simulation Applied to Medicine, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
4 Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Hospital Targu Mures, Romania
5 The University of Edinburgh, UK
Introduction: Variations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could be used as a biomarker in critically ill patients with sepsis and septic shock. Inflammation potently upregulates VEGF-C expression via macrophages with an unpredictable response. This study aimed to assess one of the newer biomarkers (VEGF-C) in patients with sepsis or septic shock and its clinical value as a diagnostic and prognostic tool.
Material and methods: The study involved 142 persons divided into three groups. Group A consisted of fifty-eight patients with sepsis; Group B consisted of forty-nine patients diagnosed as having septic shock according to the Sepsis -3 criteria. A control group of thirty-five healthy volunteers comprised Group C. Severity scores, prognostic score and organ dysfunction score, were recorded at the time of enrolment in the study. The analysis included specificity and sensitivity of plasma VEGF-C for diagnosis of septic shock. Circulating plasma VEGF-C levels were correlated with the APACHE II, MODS and severity scores and mortality.
Results: The mean (SD) plasma VEGF-C levels in septic shock patients (1374(789) pg./m), on vasopressors at the time of admission to the ICU, were significantly higher 1374(789)pg./mL, compared the mean (SD) plasma VEGF-C levels in sepsis patients (934(468) pg./mL); (p = 0.0005, Student’s t-test.) Plasma VEGF-C levels in groups A and B were shown to be significantly correlated with the APACHE II (r = 0.21, p = 0.02; r = 0.45, p = 0.0009) and MODS score (r = 0.29, p = 0.03; r = 0.4, p = 0.003). There was no association between plasma VEGF-C levels and mortality [p = 0.1]. The cut-off value for septic shock was 1010 pg./ml.
Conclusions: VEGF-C may be used as a prognostic marker in sepsis and septic shock due to its correlation with APACHE II values and as an early marker to determine the likelihood of developing MODS. It could be used as an early biomarker for diagnosing patients with septic shock.
1 Department of Microbiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Nowadays, one of the most challenging medical issues is related to high morbidity and mortality in sepsis and septic shock. Despite the medical progress regarding early diagnosis and management, this complex pathology remains a life-threatening condition. During the last decades, many definitions and including criteria were developed both in sepsis and septic shock, principally as many early biomarkers became available. However, many issues still exist regarding this subject.
The clinical definitions of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) have been refined, but both conditions manifest with similar clinical features . The Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as “a life-threatening organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated host response to infection”. Septic shock is “a subset of sepsis in which circulatory, cellular and metabolic alterations are associated with a higher mortality rate than sepsis alone”  morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation. These definitions are related to the pathophysiology of sepsis, which are the cornerstones of a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and disorders that occur . [More]
Yingke He1, John Ong2, Thuan Tong Tan3, Brian K. P. Goh4, Sharon G. K. Ong5
1 Division of Anaesthesiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
2 Department of Engineering, Materials Engineering and Material-Tissue Interactions Group, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
3 Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
4 Department of Hepato-pancreato-biliary and Transplant Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
5 Department of Surgical Intensive Care, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Background: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a complex immune response which can be precipitated by non-infectious aetiologies such as trauma, burns or pancreatitis. Addressing the underlying cause is crucial because it can be associated with increased mortality. Although the current literature associates chronic heart failure with SIRS, acute right ventricular dysfunction has not previously been reported to trigger SIRS. This case report describes the presentation of acute right ventricular dysfunction that triggered SIRS and mimicked septic shock.
Case presentation: A 70-year-old male presented to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with elevated inflammatory markers and refractory hypotension after a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical choledochectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy. Septic shock was misdiagnosed, and he was later found to have a pulmonary embolus. Thrombectomy and antimicrobials had no significant effect on lowering the elevated inflammatory markers or improving the persistent hypotension. Through Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS), right ventricular dysfunction was diagnosed. Treatment with intravenous milrinone improved blood pressure, normalised inflammatory markers and led to a prompt discharge from the ICU.
Conclusion: Acute right ventricular dysfunction can trigger SIRS, which may mimic septic shock and delay appropriate treatment.
Mircea Gabriel Mureșan1,2, Ioan Alexandru Balmoș1,2, Iudita Badea1,3, Ario Santini1,4
1 University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureş, Romania
2 Surgery Clinic No. 2, Târgu Mureş, Romania
3 Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic No.1, Târgu Mureş, Romania
4 Hon Fellow, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Despite the significant development and advancement in antibiotic therapy, life-threatening complication of infective diseases cause hundreds of thousands of deaths world. This paper updates some of the issues regarding the etiology and treatment of abdominal sepsis and summaries the latest guidelines as recommended by the Intra-abdominal Infection (IAI) Consensus (2017). Prognostic scores are currently used to assess the course of peritonitis. Irrespective of the initial cause, there are several measures universally accepted as contributing to an improved survival rate, with the early recognition of IAI being the critical matter in this respect. Immediate correction of fluid balance should be undertaken with the use of vasoactive agents being prescribed, if necessary, to augment and assist fluid resuscitation. The WISS study showed that mortality was significantly affected by sepsis irrespective of any medical and surgical measures. A significant issue is the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the clinical setting, and the reported prevalence of ESBLs intra-abdominal infections has steadily increased in Asia. Europe, Latin America, Middle East, North America, and South Pacific. Abdominal cavity pathology is second only to sepsis occurring in a pulmonary site. Following IAI (2017) guidelines, antibiotic therapy should be initiated as soon as possible after a diagnosis has been verified.
Andrei Schwartz, Evgeni Brotfain*, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, General Intensive Care Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
Progressive cardiovascular deterioration plays a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure (MOF) caused by sepsis. Evidence of various cardiac arrhythmias in septic patients has been reported in many published studies. In the critically ill septic patients, compared to non-septic patients, new onset atrial fibrillation episodes are associated with high mortality rates and poor outcomes, amongst others being new episodes of stroke, heart failure and long vasopressor usage. The potential mechanisms of the development of new cardiac arrhythmias in sepsis are complex and poorly understood. Cardiac arrhythmias in critically ill septic patients are most likely to be an indicator of the severity of pre-existing critical illness.
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