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Understanding the Correlation between Blood Profile and the Duration of Hospitalization in Pediatric Bronchopneumonia Patients: A Cross-Sectional Original Article

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0031

Introduction: Pediatric bronchopneumonia is a prevalent life-threatening disease, particularly in developing countries. Affordable and accessible blood biomarkers are needed to predict disease severity which can be based on the Duration of Hospitalization (DOH).
Aim of the Study: To assess the significance and correlation between differential blood profiles, especially the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), and the DOH in bronchopneumonia children.
Material and Methods: A record-based study was conducted at a secondary care hospital in Indonesia. After due ethical permission, following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 284 children with confirmed diagnoses of bronchopneumonia were included in the study. Blood cell counts and ratios were assessed with the DOH as the main criterion of severity. Mann-Whitney test and correlation coefficient were used to draw an analysis.
Results: Study samples were grouped into DOH of ≤ 4 days and > 4 days, focusing on NLR values, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and leukocytes. The NLR median was higher (3.98) in patients hospitalized over 4 days (P<0.0001). Lymphocyte medians were significantly higher in the opposite group (P<0.0001). Thrombocyte medians were similar in both groups (P=0.44481). The overall NLR and DOH were weakly positively correlated, with a moderate positive correlation in total neutrophils and DOH, and a moderate negative correlation in total lymphocytes and DOH. The correlation between the DOH ≤ 4 days group with each biomarker was stronger, except for leukocyte and thrombocyte. Analysis of the longer DOH group did not yield enough correlation across all blood counts.
Conclusions: Admission levels of leukocyte count, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and NLR significantly correlate with the DOH, with NLR predicting severity and positively correlated with the DOH.

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