Tag Archives: ultrasound

A Randomised Control Study Comparing Ultrasonography with Standard Clinical Methods in Assessing Endotracheal Tube Tip Positioning

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0019

Introduction: Airway ultrasound has been increasingly used in correct positioning of endotracheal tube. We hypothesize that a safe distance between endotracheal tube tip and carina can be achieved with the aid of ultrasound.
Aim of the study: Our primary objective was to determine whether ultrasound guided visualisation of proximal end of endotracheal tube cuff is better when compared to conventional method in optimal positioning of tube tip. The secondary objective was to find the optimal endotracheal tube position at the level of incisors in adult Indian population.
Materials and Methods: There were 25 patients each in the conventional group and the ultrasound group. Conventional method includes auscultation and end tidal capnography. In the ultrasound group the upper end of the endotracheal tube cuff was positioned with an intent to provide 4 cm distance from the tube tip to the carina. X ray was used in both groups for confirmation of tip position and comparison between the two groups. Further repositioning of the tube was done if indicated and the mean length of the tube at incisors was then measured.
Results: After x ray confirmation, endotracheal tube repositioning was required in 24% of patients in the USG group and 40 % of patients in the conventional group. However, this result was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.364). The endotracheal tube length at the level of teeth was 19.4 ± 1.35 cm among females and 20.95 ± 1.37 cm among males. 
Conclusions: Ultrasonography is a reliable method to determine ETT position in the trachea. There was no statistically significant difference when compared to the conventional method. The average length of ETT at the level of incisors was 19.5 cm for females and 21 cm for males.

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Simplified Diagnosis of Urosepsis by Emergency Ultrasound Combined with Clinical Scores and Biomarkers

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0006

Background: Urosepsis is a life-threatening medical condition due to a systemic infection that originates in the urinary tract. Early diagnosis and treatment of urosepsis are critical to reducing mortality rates and preventing complications. Our study was aimed at identifying a fast and reliable method for early urosepsis diagnosis and severity assessment by combining prognostic scores such as SOFA and NEWS with ultrasound examination and serum markers PCT and NLR.
Methods: We performed a single-center prospective observational study in the Craiova Clinical Emergency Hospital. It initially analysed 204 patients admitted for sepsis of various origins in our hospital between June and October 2023. Those with urological conditions that were suspected to have urosepsis have been selected for the study so that finally 76 patients were included as follows: the severe cases with persistent hypotension requiring vasopressor were enrolled in the septic shock group (15 patients – 19.7%), while the rest were included in the sepsis group (61 patients – 80.3%). Mortality rate in our study was 10.5% (8/76 deaths due to sepsis).
Results: Both prognostic scores SOFA and NEWS were significantly elevated in the septic shock group, as were the sepsis markers PCT and NLR. We identified a strong significant positive correlation between the NEWS and SOFA scores (r = 0.793) as well as PCT and NLR (r=0.417). Ultrasound emergency evaluation proved to be similar to CT scan in the diagnosis of urosepsis (RR = 0.944, p=0.264). ROC analysis showed similar diagnostic performance for both scores (AUC = 0.874 for SOFA and 0.791 for NEWS), PCT and NLR (AUC = 0.743 and 0.717).
Conclusion: Our results indicate that an accurate and fast diagnosis of urosepsis and its severity may be accomplished by combining the use of simpler tools like emergency ultrasound, the NEWS score and NLR which provide a similar diagnosis performance as other more complex evaluations.

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