University Hospitals Plymouth NHS Trust, Plymouth, Devon, United Kingdom
Introduction: The immunological response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the treatment of COVID-19 disease present a potential susceptibility to viral reactivation, particularly Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Case Presentation: A 49-year-old female presented to hospital with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis and was given sarilumab and dexamethasone. She was intubated and ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) and initially demonstrated biochemical and clinical evidence of improvement. This was followed by a severe acute deterioration in respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular function, accompanied by a vesicular rash on the face. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV-1 reactivation and treatment with acyclovir was commenced. After 49 days in ICU the patient was successfully weaned from all organ support, and she made a satisfactory recovery. Conclusions: HSV-1 reactivation is common in COVID-19 and likely contributes to poorer clinical outcomes. The mechanism causing susceptibility to viral reactivation is not clearly defined, however, the development of critical illness induced immunosuppression via dysfunction of interferon and interleukin pathways is a likely mechanism. This effect could be perpetuated with immunosuppressant medications, although further research is needed to characterise this phenomenon.
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
Introduction: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) receiving ventilation or pulmonary support via veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) can be infected with drug-resistant bacteria. When introducing VV-ECMO, the changes in serum antibiotic concentration should be considered due to an increased volume of distribution (Vd). However, no pharmacokinetic study has assessed teicoplanin (TEIC) treatment in patients with COVID-19 receiving VV-ECMO. Case presentation: A 71-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 visited a primary hospital. His oxygenation conditions worsened despite treatment with favipiravir and methylprednisolone as well as oxygen therapy. After his transfer to our center, tracheal intubation and steroid pulse therapy were initiated. Seven days after admission, VV-ECMO was performed. TEIC was administered for secondary bacterial infection. The serum TEIC concentration remained within the therapeutic range, indicating that VV-ECMO did not significantly affect TEIC pharmacokinetics. VV-ECMO was discontinued 17 days after admission. However, he developed multi-organ disorder and died 42 days after admission. Conclusion: As TEIC prevents viral invasion, it may be used with ECMO in patients with COVID-19 requiring ventilation; however, the altered pharmacokinetics of TEIC, such as increased Vd, should be considered. Therefore, TEIC pharmacokinetics in VV-ECMO should be assessed in future studies with an appropriate number of patients.
Imed Group, Research Department, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Adult Intensive Care Unit, São Camilo Hospital, Brazil
Introduction: The use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in COVID-19 represents in an incremental burden to healthcare systems. Aim of the study: We aimed to characterize patients hospitalized for COVID-19 who received IMV and identify risk factors for mortality in this population. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study including consecutive adult patients admitted to a private network in Brazil who received IMV from March to October, 2020. A bidirectional stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for mortality. Results: We included 215 patients, of which 96 died and 119 were discharged from ICU. The mean age was 62.7 ± 15.4 years and the most important comorbidities were hypertension (62.8%), obesity (50.7%) and diabetes (40%). Non-survivors had lower body mass index (BMI) (28.3 [25.5; 31.6] vs. 31.2 [28.3; 35], p<0.001, and a shorter duration from symptom onset to intubation (8.5 [6.0; 12] days vs. 10 [8.0; 12.5] days, p = 0.005). Multivariable regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were age (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.1, p < 0.001), creatinine level at the intubation date (OR: 3.28, 95% CI: 1.47 to 7.33, p = 0.004), BMI (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.99, p = 0.033), lowest PF ratio within 48 hours post-intubation (OR: 0.988, 95% CI: 0.979 to 0.997, p = 0.011), barotrauma (OR: 5.18, 95% CI: 1.14 to 23.65, p = 0.034) and duration from symptom onset to intubation (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.95, p = 0.006). Conclusion: In our retrospective cohort we identified the main risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 patients receiving IMV: age, creatinine at the day of intubation, BMI, lowest PF ratio 48-hours post-intubation, barotrauma and duration from symptom onset to intubation.
Judit Gutierrez-Gutierrez, Reyes Muñoz-Calahorro, Laura Bermejo-Guerrero, Zaira Molina-Collado, Ignacio Saez de la Fuente, Jose Angel Sánchez-Izquierdo
Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain
A case of myoclonic status treated with plasmapheresis in a patient of 63 years of age who was admitted to a Spanish intensive care unit is reported. The patient showed clinical and radiological evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; molecular tests did not verify this.
Komal Imtiaz1, Wade Jodeh2, Dave Sudekum2, Bruno DiGiovine2, Jason Hecht2
1 University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TX, USA 2 St Joseph Mercy Ann Arbor. Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Introduction: Inhaled epoprostenol (iEpo) is a pulmonary vasodilator used to treat refractory respiratory failure, including that caused by Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Aim of Study: To describe the experience at three teaching hospitals using iEpo for severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and evaluate its efficacy in improving oxygenation. Methods: Fifteen patients were included who received iEpo, had confirmed COVID-19 and had an arterial blood gas measurement in the 12 hours before and 24 hours after iEpo initiation. Results: Eleven patients received prone ventilation before iEpo (73.3%), and six (40%) were paralyzed. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio) improved from 95.7 mmHg to 118.9 mmHg (p=0.279) following iEpo initiation. In the nine patients with severe ARDS, the mean P/F ratio improved from 66.1 mmHg to 95.7 mmHg (p=0.317). Ultimately, four patients (26.7%) were extubated after an average of 9.9 days post-initiation. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated a trend towards improvement in oxygenation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Although limited by the small sample size, the results of this case series portend further investigation into the role of iEpo for severe respiratory failure associated with COVID-19.
Christophe de Terwangne1, Antonio Sorgente2, Redente Tortora3, Diana Cheung3, Frederic Duprez3, Sammy Place1, Jerome R. Lechien4, Lucio Capulzini2, Michael De Cubber2, Sven Saussez4, Fabio Silvio Taccone5, Shahram Mashayekhi3
1 Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier EpiCURA Hornu, Hornu, Belgium 2 Department of Cardiology, Centre Hospitalier EpiCURA, Hornu, Belgium 3 Department of Intensive Care, Centre Hospitalier EpiCURA, Hornu, Belgium 4 Department of Human Anatomy and Experimental Oncology, University of Mons, Mons, Belgium 5 Department of Intensive Care, Hopital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Aim: The objective of the study was to assess mortality rates in COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who also requiring mechanical ventilation. The predictors of mortality in this cohort were analysed, and the clinical characteristics recorded. Material and method: A single centre retrospective study was conducted on all COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the Epicura Hospital Center, Province of Hainaut, Belgium, between March 1st and April 30th 2020. Results: Forty-nine patients were included in the study of which thirty-four were male, and fifteen were female. The mean (SD) age was 68.8 (10.6) and 69.5 (12.6) for males and females, respectively. The median time to death after the onset of symptoms was eighteen days. The median time to death, after hospital admission was nine days. By the end of the thirty days follow-up, twenty-seven patients (55%) had died, and twenty–two (45%) had survived. Non-survivors, as compared to those who survived, were similar in gender, prescribed medications, COVID-19 symptoms, with similar laboratory test results. They were significantly older (p = 0.007), with a higher co-morbidity burden (p = 0.026) and underwent significantly less tracheostomy (p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, no parameter significantly predicted mortality. Conclusions: This study reported a mortality rate of 55% in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS who also required mechanical ventilation. The results corroborate previous findings that older and more comorbid patients represent the population at most risk of a poor outcome in this setting.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Starting from the December 2019 identification of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), an overwhelming sense of panic has enveloped public discourse. This is likely to be amplified by WHO recently declaring the novel coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. It is the third significant occurrence of a zoonotic coronavirus crossing the species barrier to infect humans, and it likely will not be the last. Hope is not lost; and a measured approach, one that is cognizant of the seriousness of this public health crisis without giving into hysteria, is imperative. [More]
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