Category Archives: JCCM 2023, Vol. 9, Issue 2

Post Hospital Discharge Functional Recovery of Critical Illness Survivors. Systematic Review

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0011

Background: Millions of people face critical illnesses and need to be hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) annually worldwide. Despite the fact that survival rates of these patients have increased, they develop various cognitive, psychological and functional impairments. This study aims to investigate the significance of the recovery interventions following intensive care unit discharge, the effectiveness of the rehabilitative protocols and their possible deficits.
Methods: MEDLINE (PubMed) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched for studies analyzing the recovery potentials post-ICU among adults, who spent at least 48 hours at the ICU. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed via PEDro Scale.
Results: Nine randomized controlled trials were included. These took place mainly at specialized rehabilitation gyms as well as patients home environments. Studies analyses showed that treatment group showed improvement in functional ability in relation to control group. Nevertheless, differences between two groups were not statistically significant (P<0.05). The majority of studies assessed cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength.
Conclusions: The included rehabilitation programs were determined to be effective. Although they didn’t prove any statistically significant difference between groups, quality of life enhancements and stress reduction were reported. Hence, new randomized controlled trials are required in order to provide more accurate data on the potential benefits of rehabilitation strategies among post-ICU patients.

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Multiple Organ Dysfunction Secondary to Herpes Simplex Virus -1 Reactivation After Treatment With Dexamethasone and Sarilumab for Covid-19 Disease

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0010

Introduction: The immunological response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the treatment of COVID-19 disease present a potential susceptibility to viral reactivation, particularly Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1).
Case Presentation: A 49-year-old female presented to hospital with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis and was given sarilumab and dexamethasone. She was intubated and ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) and initially demonstrated biochemical and clinical evidence of improvement. This was followed by a severe acute deterioration in respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular function, accompanied by a vesicular rash on the face. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV-1 reactivation and treatment with acyclovir was commenced. After 49 days in ICU the patient was successfully weaned from all organ support, and she made a satisfactory recovery.
Conclusions: HSV-1 reactivation is common in COVID-19 and likely contributes to poorer clinical outcomes. The mechanism causing susceptibility to viral reactivation is not clearly defined, however, the development of critical illness induced immunosuppression via dysfunction of interferon and interleukin pathways is a likely mechanism. This effect could be perpetuated with immunosuppressant medications, although further research is needed to characterise this phenomenon.

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Lung Injury Risk in Traumatic Brain Injury Managed With Optimal Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Guided-Therapy

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0009

Introduction: Management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has to counterbalance prevention of secondary brain injury without systemic complications, namely lung injury. The potential risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leads to therapeutic decisions such as fluid balance restriction, high PEEP and other lung protective measures, that may conflict with neurologic outcome. In fact, low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) may induce secondary ischemic injury and mortality, but disproportionate high CPP may also increase morbidity and worse lung compliance and hypoxia with the risk of developing ARDS and fatal outcome. The evaluation of cerebral autoregulation at bedside and individualized (optimal CPP) CPPopt-guided therapy, may not only be a relevant measure to protect the brain, but also a safe measure to avoid systemic complications.
Aim of the study: We aimed to study the safety of CPPopt-guided-therapy and the risk of secondary lung injury association with bad outcome.
Methods and results: Single-center retrospective analysis of 92 severe TBI patients admitted to the Neurocritical Care Unit managed with CPPopt-guided-therapy by PRx (pressure reactivity index). During the first 10 days, we collected data from blood gas, ventilation and brain variables. Evolution along time was analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression models. 86% were male with mean age 53±21 years. 49% presented multiple trauma and 21% thoracic trauma. At hospital admission, median GCS was 7 and after 3-months GOS was 3. Monitoring data was CPP 86±7mmHg, CPP-CPPopt -2.8±10.2mmHg and PRx 0.03±0.19. The average PFratio (PaO2/FiO2) was 305±88 and driving pressure 15.9±3.5cmH2O. PFratio exhibited a significant quadratic dependence across time and PRx and driving pressure presented significant negative association with PFRatio. CPP and CPPopt did not present significant effect on PFratio (p=0.533; p=0.556). A significant positive association between outcome and the difference CPP-CPPopt was found.
Conclusion: Management of TBI using CPPopt-guided-therapy was associated with better outcome and seems to be safe regarding the development of secondary lung injury.

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