Following the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, design, development, validation, verification and implementation of diagnostic tests were actively addressed by a large number of diagnostic test manufacturers. This paper deals with the biases and sources of variation which influence the accuracy of diagnostic tests, including calculating and interpreting test characteristics, defining what is meant by test accuracy, understanding the basic study design for evaluating test accuracy, understanding the meaning of Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value and Negative Predictive Value, and evaluating them numerically, and the ROC curve (or Receiver Operating Characteristic ) and the Area under the Curve (AUC).
This is the first paper in the occasional series which aims to aid and facilitate internists and colleagues who have little or no experience in writing and submitting manuscripts for publication.
Case reports have a very low level of evidence, but they do have a place in medical publications. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) was first established as a distinct disease in 1966 following the publication of a case report on 11 patients. [ Davison S, Spiera H, Plotz CM “Polymyalgia rheumatica”. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 9 (1): 18–23.] [More]