Pulmonary hypertension is a rare and progressive pathology defined by abnormally high pulmonary artery pressure mediated by a diverse range of aetiologies. It affects up to twenty-six individuals per one million patients currently living in the United Kingdom (UK), with a median life expectancy of 2.8 years in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is often delayed due to the presentation of non-specific symptoms, leading to a delay in referral to specialists services. The complexity of treatment necessitates a multidisciplinary approach, underpinned by a diverse disease aetiology from managing the underlying disease process to novel specialist treatments. This has led to the formation of dedicated specialist treatment centres within centralised UK cities. The article aimed to provide a concise overview of pulmonary hypertension’s clinical perioperative management, including key definitions, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and risk stratification.
Air may extend to the retroperitoneal space from retroperitoneal perforation of a hollow viscus, infection of the anterior pararenal space with gas-forming organisms and from pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum . Rare pathologies, such as open reduction and internal fixation of femoral fractures and anaerobic abscess of the hip joint have also been described in relation to this complication [1,2]. A rare case of pneumoretroperitoneum caused by insufflation of air during an attempt to achieve epidural anesthesia is described.