The Prognostic Utility of Cytokines in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0025

Introduction: The severity of COVID-19 depends on several factors, but the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines remains in center of the interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive utility of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in patients with COVID-19.
Material and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 181 adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the 1st Infectious Disease County Hospital Târgu Mureș from December 2020 to September 2021. Serum cytokine levels were measured and correlated with disease severity, need for oxygen therapy, intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, and outcome.Results: We found significantly higher serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in patients with severe COVID-19 and in those with a fatal outcome. The logistic regression analysis showed a significant predictive value for IL-8 regarding disease severity, and for IL6 and IL-10 regarding ICU transfer and fatal outcome.
Conclusions: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were significantly increased in patients with COVID-19, but their predictive value regarding disease severity and the need for oxygen therapy was poor. We found IL-6 and IL-10 to have a good predictive performance regarding ICU transfer and fatal outcome.

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