Tag Archives: pneumomediastinum

COVID-19: A Possible Cause of Spontaneous Pneumoperitoneum

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0018

Introduction: Pneumoperitoneum is the presence of air within the peritoneal cavity and is mostly caused by organ rupture. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum accounts 5% to 15% of the cases and occurs in the absence of organ damage. The pulmonary origin of pneumoperitoneum is unusual, and probably associated with mechanical ventilation and alveolar leak. In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) there are some reports of air leak, like pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, and subcutaneous emphysema.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 70-year-old man with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Since admission he was on Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV), without improvement, needing Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV) due to severe respiratory failure. Five days after IMV despite protective lung ventilation, massive spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum were diagnosed. Besides initial conservative management 12 hours later, the patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome requiring percutaneous needle decompression.
Conclusions: Pneumoperitoneum can be considered a rare complication of COVID-19 pneumonia and its management, resulting not only from the viral pulmonary but also from secondary causes. Conservative management should be usually enough. However, in the presence of abdominal compartment syndrome prompt recognition and treatment are crucial and eventually lifesaving.

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Management of Pneumomediastinum Associated with H1N1 Pneumonia: A Case Report

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2019-0001

H1N1 is seen in tropical countries like India, occurring irrespective of the season. Complications of the disease are frequently encountered and there is little in the way or guidelines as to the how these should be managed. The treatment of one such complication, a recurrent pneumiomediastinum is the subject of the current paper. The management followed guidance for the treatment of a similar condition known as primary spontaneous pneumomediastinum, an uncommon condition resulting from alveolar rupture-otherwise known as the Macklin phenomenon.

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