Tag Archives: intensive care unit

Use of Transcranial Doppler in Intensive Care Unit

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0021

Use of transcranial Doppler has undergone much development since its introduction in 1982, making the technique suitable for general use in intensive care units. The main application in intensive care units is to assess intracranial pressure, confirm the lack of cerebral circulation in brain death, detect vasospasm in subarachnoid haemorrhage, and monitor the blood flow parameters during thrombolysis and carotid endarterectomy, as well as measuring stenosis of the main intracranial arteries in sickle cell disease in children.
This review summarises the use of transcranial Doppler in intensive care units.

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Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis – A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0002

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute, life-threatening muco-cutaneous disease, often induced by drugs. It is characterized by muco-cutaneous erythematous and purpuric lesions, flaccid blisters which erupt, causing large areas of denudation. The condition can involve the genitourinary, pulmonary and, gastrointestinal systems. Because of the associated high mortality rate early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory.
This article presents the case of a sixty-six years old male patient, known to have cirrhosis, chronic kidney failure, and diabetes mellitus. His current treatment included haemodialysis. He was hospitalized as an emergency to the Dermatology Department for erythemato-violaceous, purpuric patches and papules, with acral disposition, associated with rapidly spreading erosions of the oral, nasal and genital mucosa and the emergence of flaccid blisters which erupted quickly leaving large areas of denudation. Based on the clinical examination and laboratory investigations the patient was diagnosed with TEN, secondary to carbamazepine intake for encephalopathic phenomena. The continuous alteration in both kidney and liver function and electrolyte imbalance, required him to be transferred to the intensive care unit. Following pulse therapy with systemic corticosteroids, hydro-electrolytic re-equilibration, topical corticosteroid and antibiotics, there was a favourable resolution of TEN.
The case is of interest due to possible life-threatening cutaneous complications, including sepsis and significant fluid loss, in a patient with associated severe systemic pathology, highlighting the importance of early recognition of TEN, and the role of a multidisciplinary team in providing suitable treatment.

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Can APACHE II, SOFA, ISS, and RTS Severity Scores be Used to Predict Septic Complications in Multiple Trauma Patients?

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0019

Background: Physiological composite scores are used to predict mortality in multiple trauma patients. Sepsis is the leading cause of late mortality in trauma victims brought about by immune suppression due to homeostasis dysregulation.
Objective: To determine whether APACHE II, SOFA, ISS and RTS scores can predict the occurrence of sepsis in multiple trauma patients.
Methods: APACHE II, SOFA, ISS, and RTS scores were calculated during the first twenty-four hours after the injury for sixty-four adult poly-traumatic patients. The occurrence of infectious complications was investigated over a fourteen-day period. The infection-free rates for the multiple trauma patients were considered as end-points in the Kaplan-Meier plot analysis.
Results: For SOFA, a cutoff score of 4 points was identified as a predictor of the occurrence of sepsis, with 89% of the patients with SOFA<4 being infection-free, while 37% of those with SOFA>4 were infection-free (p<0.01). None of the patients with APACHE II≤5 points developed infections. Eighty-four percent of patients with APACHE II scores of 5-10 did not develop sepsis, while 49% with APACHE II≥11 were infection-free (p<0.01).  A cutoff of 7 points was found to be most discriminative for RTS. Eighty-eight percent of the patients with RTS≥7 and 43% of those with RTS<7 were infection-free (p<0.01). Eighty-eight percent of patients with ISS<22 did not develop sepsis and 56% with ISS≥22 did not develop sepsis (p<0.01).
Conclusion: APACHE II, SOFA, ISS, and RTS functional severity scores can predict mortality as well as the occurrence of sepsis in multiple trauma patients.

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