Tag Archives: risk factors

Weekend Effect and Mortality Outcomes in Aortic Dissection: A Prospective Analysis

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2024-0014

Background: Aortic dissection (AD) is a critical heart condition with potentially severe outcomes. Our study aimed to investigate the existence of a “weekend effect” in AD by examining the correlation between patient outcomes and whether their treatment occurred on weekdays versus weekends.
Methods: Specifically, we prospectively analysed the effect of weekday and weekend treatment on acute AD patient outcomes, both before surgical intervention and during hospitalization, for 124 patients treated from 2019–2021, as well as during 6 months of follow-up.
Results: The mean age of the study population was 62.5 years, and patient age exhibited a high degree of variability. We recorded a mortality rate before surgery of 8.65% for the weekend group and 15% for the weekday group, but this difference was not statistically significant. During hospitalization, mortality was 50% in the weekend group and 25% in the weekday group, but this difference was not statistically significant. Discharge mortality was 9.61% in the weekend group and 5% in the weekday group.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there was no significant difference in mortality rates between patients admitted to the hospital on weekends versus weekdays. Therefore, the period of the week when a patient presents to the hospital with AD appears not to affect their mortality.

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The Gender Gap in Aortic Dissection:
A Prospective Analysis of Risk and Outcomes

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0024

Aortic dissection (AD) is a severe cardiovascular condition that could have negative consequences. Our study employed a prospective design and examined preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data to evaluate the effects of gender on various medical conditions. We looked at how gender affected the results of aortic dissection (AD). In contrast to female patients who had more systemic hypertension (p=0.031), male patients had higher rates of hemopericardium (p=0.003), pulmonary hypertension (p=0.039), and hemopericardium (p=0.003). Dobutamine administration during surgery significantly raised the mortality risk (p=0.015). There were noticeably more women patients (p=0.01) in the 71 to 80 age group. Significant differences in age (p=0.004), eGFR at admission (p=0.009), and eGFR at discharge (p=0.006) were seen, however, there was no association between gender and mortality. In conclusion, our findings highlight that gender may no longer be such an important aspect of aortic dissection disease as we previously thought, and this information could have an important contribution for surgeons as well as for anesthesiologists involved in the management of acute aortic dissection.

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Risk Factors for Weaning Failure in COVID-19 Patients

DOI: 10.2478/jccm-2023-0021

Background: Data on risk factors associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning failure among SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients is limited. We aimed to determine clinical characteristics associated with weaning outcome in SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients under MV.
Objectives: To determine potential risk factors for weaning outcome in patients with SARS-CoV2 ARDS.
Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in the ICUs of four Greek hospitals via review of the electronic medical record for the period 2020-2021. All consecutive adult patients were screened and were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: a) age equal or above 18 years, b) need for MV for more than 48 hours and c) diagnosis of ARDS due to SARS-CoV2 pneumonia or primary or secondary ARDS of other aetiologies. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded for the first 28 days following ICU admission. The primary outcome was weaning success defined as spontaneous ventilation for more than 48 hours.
Results: A hundred and fifty eight patients were included; 96 SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients. SOFA score, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and shock were independently associated with the weaning outcome OR(95% CI), 0.86 (0.73-0.99), 0.27 (0.08-0.89) and 0.30 (0.14-0.61), respectively]. When we analysed data from SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients separately, COPD [0.18 (0.03-0.96)] and shock [0.33(0.12 – 0.86)] were independently associated with the weaning outcome.
Conclusions: The presence of COPD and shock are potential risk factors for adverse weaning outcome in SARS-CoV2 ARDS patients.

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Clinical Features and Outcomes of Fusobacterium Species Infections in a Ten-Year Follow-up

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0029

Objective. Although uncommon, Fusobacterium infections have a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from local pharyngeal infections to septic shock. Our aim was to characterize and analyze the clinical features and outcomes in patients with Fusobacterium infections, and determine which variables were able to predict a poor outcome.
Methods. We conducted a retrospective, hospital-based study using the computerized records of a second-level Spanish general hospital, serving a population of 155,000 inhabitants. The cohort was enrolled among patients cared for at the hospital between 2007 and 2016. Demographic, clinical data, microbiological characterization and outcomes at discharge, were analyzed.
Results. We collected data for all 26 patients over a 10-year period (annual incidence of 1.78 per 100,000), with an incidence of bacteremia of 0.53 cases per 100,000 population per year. F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum were the most frequent isolations (53.8% and 38.5%, respectively). F. necrophorum was found to be associated with a younger population. Although we found no deaths attributable to Fusobacterium, 15 patients (57%) were found to have severe infections due to this pathogen, and 7 patients (26.9%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The only identifiable risk factor for a severe infection (sepsis, septic shock or ICU admission) was the presence of bacteremia.
Conclusions. Fusobacterium infections are uncommon. F. necrophorum tends to cause infection in younger individuals, while F. nucleatum has a preference for older patients. The clinical spectrum is wide, ranging from local, non-severe infections, such as sinusitis or pharyngitis, to abscess formation and life-threatening infections.

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