Category Archives: JCCM 2016, Vol. 2, Issue 2

Complications of Sepsis in Infant. A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0012

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) characterized by two or more of the following: fever > 38.5 °C or <36 °C, tachycardia, medium respiratory frequency over two SD for age, increased number of leukocytes.
The following is a case of an eight months old, female infant, admitted in to the clinic for fever (39.7 C), with an onset five days before the admission, following trauma to the inferior lip and gum. Other than the trauma to the lip and gum, a clinical exam did not reveal any other pathological results. The laboratory tests showed leukocytosis, positive acute phase reactants (ESR 105 mm/h, PCR 85 mg/dl), with positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus MSSA. at 24 hours. Three days from admission, despite the administration of antibiotics (Vancomycin+Meronem), there was no remission of fever, and the infant developed a fluctuant collection above the knee joint. This was drained, and was of a serous macroscopic nature. A decision was made to perform a CT, which confirmed the diagnosis of septic arthritis. At two days after the intervention, the fever reappeared, therefore the antibiotic regime were altered (Oxacillin instead of Vancomycin), resulting in resolution of the fever. Sepsis in infant is a complex pathology, with non-specific symptoms and unpredictable evolution.

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The Pitfalls of Febrile Jaundice. A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0013

Jaundice in sepsis is usually caused by cholestasis, and its onset can precede other manifestations of the infection. Inflammation-induced cholestasis is a common complication in patients with an extrahepatic infection or those with inflammatory processes. We describe the case of a 47 years old female who presented with low back pain and paravertebral muscular contracture. She subsequently developed a cholestatic syndrome with clinical manifestations such as jaundice, followed by fever and sepsis with multiple organ dysfunction. Initially labeled as biliary sepsis, the diagnosis was crucially reoriented as the blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested spondylodiscitis as well as a paravertebral abscess.

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The Management of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0011

Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is most frequently produced by TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1) and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and only rarely by enterotoxins A, C, D, E, and H. Various clinical pictures can occur depending on severity, patient age and immune status of the host. Severe forms, complicated by sepsis, are associated with a death rate of 50-60%. The case of a Caucasian female infant, aged seven weeks, hospitalized with a diffuse skin rash, characterized as allergodermia, who initially developed TSS with axillary intertrigo, is reported. TSS was confirmed according to 2011 CDC criteria, and blood cultures positive for Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Severe development occurred initial, including acidosis, consumption coagulopathy, multiple organ failures (MOF), including impaired liver and kidney function. Central nervous system damage was manifest by seizures. Clinical management included medical supervision by a multidisciplinary team of infectious diseases specialist and intensive care specialist, as well as the initiation of a complex treatment plan to correct hydro electrolytic imbalances and acidosis. This treatment included antibiotic and antifungal therapy, diuretic therapy, immunoglobulins, and local treatment similar to a patient with burns to prevent superinfection of skin and mucous membranes lesions. There was a favourable response to the treatment with resolution of the illness.

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Parkinsonian Syndrome and Toxoplasmic Encephalitis

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0009

Toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus may progress rapidly with a potentially fatal outcome. Less common neurological symptoms associated with this are Parkinsonism, focal dystonia, rubral tremor and hemichorea–hemiballismus syndrome.
A 58 year old woman suddenly lost consciousness and was admitted to the emergency service. Her medical history was unremarkable, except for frequent headaches in the last year, recurrent herpes simplex skin lesions and an episode of urticaria. A computer tomography scan showed supra and infra-tentorial lesions on suggestive of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Both Toxoplasma gondii and HIV tests were positive. In the intensive care unit, antiparasitic and antiretroviral drugs were administered, and she recovered from the coma after six weeks but presented with tetraparesis, diplopia, and depression. The LCD4 count increased from 7 to 128/mm3. The neurological lesions slowly resolved over the next two months, although postural instability, rigidity, bradykinesia and predominantly left side tremor persisted. Mild improvement was achieved after the administration of levodopa.
Associated Parkinsonian syndrome in HIV patients is a rare condition, explained by the location of the brain and basal ganglia lesions, and by the observed effect of Toxoplasma gondii which increases dopamine metabolism in neural cells. Early HIV diagnostic and treatment are necessary to prevent neurological disability.

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Influence of Ventilation Parameters on Intraabdominal Pressure

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0016

Introduction: Intraabdominal pressure monitoring is not routinely performed because the procedure assumes some invasiveness and, like other invasive procedures, it needs to have a clear indication to be performed. The causes of IAH are various. Mechanically ventilated patients have numerous parameters set in order to be optimally ventilated and it is important to identify the ones with the biggest interference in abdominal pressure. Although it was stated that mechanical ventilation is a potential factor of high intraabdominal pressure the set parameters which may lead to this diagnostic are not clearly named.
Objectives: To evaluate the relation between intraabdominal pressure and ventilator parameters in patients with mechanical ventilation and to determine the correlation between intraabdominal pressure and body mass index.
Material and method: This is an observational study which enrolled 16 invasive ventilated patients from which we obtained 61 record sheets. The following parameters were recorded twice daily: ventilator parameters, intraabdominal pressure, SpO2, Partial Oxygen pressure of arterial blood. We calculated the Body Mass Index (BMI) for each patient and the volume tidal/body weight ratio for every recorded data point.
Results: We observed a significant correlation between intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and the value of PEEP (p=0.0006). A significant statistical correlation was noted regarding the tidal volumes used for patient ventilation. The mean tidal volume was 5.18 ml/kg. Another significant correlation was noted between IAP and tidal volume per kilogram (p=0.0022). A positive correlation was found between BMI and IAP (p=0.0049), and another one related to the age of the enrolled patients. (p=0.0045).
Conclusions: The use of positive end-expiratory pressures and high tidal volumes during mechanical ventilation may lead to the elevation of intraabdominal pressure, a possible way of reducing this risk would be using low values of PEEP and also low volumes for the setting of ventilation parameters. There is a close positive correlation between the intraabdominal pressure levels and body mass index.

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Intubation-Surfactant: Extubation on Continuous Positive Pressure Ventilation. Who Are the Best Candidates?

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0010

Introduction: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) continues to be the leading cause of illness and death in preterm infants. Studies indicate that INSURE strategy (INtubate-SURfactant administration and Extubate to nasal continuous positive airway pressure [nCPAP]) is better than mechanical ventilation (MV) with rescue surfactant, for the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, as it has a synergistic effect on alveolar stability.
Aim of the study: To identify the factors associated with INSURE strategy failure in preterm infants with gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 weeks.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, based on data collected in the Romanian National Registry for RDS patients by three regional (level III) centers between 01.01.2010 and 31.12.2011. All preterm infants of ≤ 32 weeks GA were included. Prenatal and neonatal information were compared between (Group 1), the preterm infants successfully treated using INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation on nasal CPAP (INSURE) strategy and (Group 2 ), those who needed mechanical ventilation within seventy-two hours after INSURE.
Results: A total of 637 preterm infants with GA ≤ 32 weeks were included in the study. INSURE strategy was performed in fifty-seven cases (8.9%) [ Group 1] and was successful in thirty-one patients (54.4%). No differences were found as regards the studied prenatal and intranatal characteristics between (Group 1) and Group 2 who needed mechanical ventilation. Group 2 preterm infants who needed mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after INSURE had significantly lower mean Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and lower peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during resuscitation at birth (p<0.05). Successful INSURE strategy was associated with greater GA, birth weight (BW), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) during resuscitation, and an increased mean dose of surfactant but these associations were not statistically significant (p>0.5).
Conclusion: In preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation, increased INSURE failure rates are associated with complicated pregnancies, significantly lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and lower peripheral oxygen saturation during resuscitation.

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Much Ado About the New Definitions of Sepsis

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0015

Following the publication of the new definition of sepsis (Sepsis-3), a plethora of articles have been published in medical journals. Recognizing the epidemiological importance of the previous definitions, first issued in 1992 (Sepsis-1), and subsequently revised in 2001 (Sepsis-2), the most recent opinion emphasizes the failure “to provide adequate groups of patients with homogenous aetiologies, presentations and outcomes”, and blamed one of the causes “for the failure of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs), that tested the efficacy of adjuvant sepsis therapies”. This review summarizes the recent advances in sepsis definition.

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Knowledge Is Power

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2016-0014

When Sir Francis Bacon published in his work, Meditationes Sacrae (1597), the saying: “knowledge itself is power”, he most likely wanted to transmit the idea that having and sharing knowledge is the cornerstone of reputation and influence, and therefore power; all achievements emanate from this. Today, scientific knowledge is shared through publications that not only inform, but have the capacity to influence decision making.
The Journal of Critical Care Medicine, a publication of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mureș, Romania launched in 2015, was recently included in the Master Journal List of the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), which is part of the Thomson Reuters Web of Science Core Collection. This new index ensures the indexing of high-quality medical articles that undergo a specific peer-review process prior to publication. The inclusion of the journal in this international database ensures a larger and more consistent international profile, as well as a probable increase in the citation of published articles. [More]

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