A case series is presented of five overweight or obese patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Miami, Florida, United States. A multitude of coagulation parameters was suggestive of a hypercoagulable state among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This article reports various manifestations of hypercoagulable states in overweight and obese patients, such as overt bleeding consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation, venous thromboembolism, gastrointestinal bleeding as well as retroperitoneal hematoma. All of the required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently patients died. The characteristics of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy are atypical and warrant a further understanding of the pathophysiology to improve clinical outcomes, specifically in overweight or obese patients.
Sepsis associated coagulopathy is due to the inflammation-induced activation of coagulation pathways concomitant with dysfunction of anticoagulant and fibrinolytic systems, leading to different degrees of haemostasis dysregulation. This response is initially beneficial, contributing to antimicrobial defence, but when control is lost coagulation activation leads to widespread microvascular thrombosis and subsequent organ failure. Large clinical trials of sepsis-related anticoagulant therapies failed to show survival benefits, but posthoc analysis of databases and several smaller studies showed beneficial effects of anticoagulants in subgroups of patients with early sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. A reasonable explanation could be the difference in timing of anticoagulant therapy and patient heterogeneity associated with large trials. Proper selection of patients and adequate timing are required for treatment to be successful. The time when coagulation activation changes from advantageous to detrimental represents the right moment for the administration of coagulation-targeted therapy. In this way, the defence function of the haemostatic system is preserved, and the harmful effects of overwhelming coagulation activation are avoided.