A case series is presented of five overweight or obese patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Miami, Florida, United States. A multitude of coagulation parameters was suggestive of a hypercoagulable state among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This article reports various manifestations of hypercoagulable states in overweight and obese patients, such as overt bleeding consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation, venous thromboembolism, gastrointestinal bleeding as well as retroperitoneal hematoma. All of the required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently patients died. The characteristics of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy are atypical and warrant a further understanding of the pathophysiology to improve clinical outcomes, specifically in overweight or obese patients.
Background: Controlled anticoagulation is key to maintaining continuous blood filtration therapies. Objective: The study aimed to compare different blood sampling sites for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to evaluate anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and identify the most appropriate sampling site for safe patient anticoagulation and increased filter life span.
Method: The study was a prospective observational single-centre investigation targeting intensive care unit (ICU) patients on CRRT using an anticoagulation protocol based on patient characteristics and a weight-based modified nomogram. Eighty-four patients were included in the study. Four sampling sites were assessed: heparin free central venous nondialysis catheter (CVC), an arterial line with heparinised flush (Artery), a circuit access line (Access), and a circuit return line (Postfilter). Blood was sampled from each of four different sites on every patient, four hours after the first heparin bolus. aPTT was determined using a rapid clot detector, point of care device.
Results: A high positive correlation was obtained for aPTT values between CVC and Access sampling sites (r (84) =0.72; p <0 .05) and a low positive correlation between CVC and Arterial sampling site (r (84) =0.46, p < 0.05). When correlated by artery age, the young Artery (1-3 day old) correlates with CVC, Access and Postfilter (r (45) = 0.74, p >0.05). The aPTT values were significantly higher at Postfilter and Arterial sampling site, older than three days, compared to the CVC sampling site (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Considering patient bleeding risks and filter life span, the optimal sampling sites for safe assessment of unfractionated heparin anticoagulation on CRRT during CVVHDF were the central venous catheter using heparin free lavage saline solution, a heparinised flushed arterial catheter not older than three days, and a circuit access line