Despite the significant development and advancement in antibiotic therapy, life-threatening complication of infective diseases cause hundreds of thousands of deaths world. This paper updates some of the issues regarding the etiology and treatment of abdominal sepsis and summaries the latest guidelines as recommended by the Intra-abdominal Infection (IAI) Consensus (2017). Prognostic scores are currently used to assess the course of peritonitis. Irrespective of the initial cause, there are several measures universally accepted as contributing to an improved survival rate, with the early recognition of IAI being the critical matter in this respect. Immediate correction of fluid balance should be undertaken with the use of vasoactive agents being prescribed, if necessary, to augment and assist fluid resuscitation. The WISS study showed that mortality was significantly affected by sepsis irrespective of any medical and surgical measures. A significant issue is the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the clinical setting, and the reported prevalence of ESBLs intra-abdominal infections has steadily increased in Asia. Europe, Latin America, Middle East, North America, and South Pacific. Abdominal cavity pathology is second only to sepsis occurring in a pulmonary site. Following IAI (2017) guidelines, antibiotic therapy should be initiated as soon as possible after a diagnosis has been verified.
Progressive cardiovascular deterioration plays a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure (MOF) caused by sepsis. Evidence of various cardiac arrhythmias in septic patients has been reported in many published studies. In the critically ill septic patients, compared to non-septic patients, new onset atrial fibrillation episodes are associated with high mortality rates and poor outcomes, amongst others being new episodes of stroke, heart failure and long vasopressor usage. The potential mechanisms of the development of new cardiac arrhythmias in sepsis are complex and poorly understood. Cardiac arrhythmias in critically ill septic patients are most likely to be an indicator of the severity of pre-existing critical illness.