1 Department of Microbiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Nowadays, one of the most challenging medical issues is related to high morbidity and mortality in sepsis and septic shock. Despite the medical progress regarding early diagnosis and management, this complex pathology remains a life-threatening condition. During the last decades, many definitions and including criteria were developed both in sepsis and septic shock, principally as many early biomarkers became available. However, many issues still exist regarding this subject.
The clinical definitions of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) have been refined, but both conditions manifest with similar clinical features . The Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as “a life-threatening organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated host response to infection”. Septic shock is “a subset of sepsis in which circulatory, cellular and metabolic alterations are associated with a higher mortality rate than sepsis alone”  morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation. These definitions are related to the pathophysiology of sepsis, which are the cornerstones of a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and disorders that occur . [More]
Yingke He1, John Ong2, Thuan Tong Tan3, Brian K. P. Goh4, Sharon G. K. Ong5
1 Division of Anaesthesiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
2 Department of Engineering, Materials Engineering and Material-Tissue Interactions Group, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
3 Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
4 Department of Hepato-pancreato-biliary and Transplant Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
5 Department of Surgical Intensive Care, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Background: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a complex immune response which can be precipitated by non-infectious aetiologies such as trauma, burns or pancreatitis. Addressing the underlying cause is crucial because it can be associated with increased mortality. Although the current literature associates chronic heart failure with SIRS, acute right ventricular dysfunction has not previously been reported to trigger SIRS. This case report describes the presentation of acute right ventricular dysfunction that triggered SIRS and mimicked septic shock.
Case presentation: A 70-year-old male presented to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with elevated inflammatory markers and refractory hypotension after a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical choledochectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy. Septic shock was misdiagnosed, and he was later found to have a pulmonary embolus. Thrombectomy and antimicrobials had no significant effect on lowering the elevated inflammatory markers or improving the persistent hypotension. Through Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS), right ventricular dysfunction was diagnosed. Treatment with intravenous milrinone improved blood pressure, normalised inflammatory markers and led to a prompt discharge from the ICU.
Conclusion: Acute right ventricular dysfunction can trigger SIRS, which may mimic septic shock and delay appropriate treatment.
Mircea Gabriel Mureșan1,2, Ioan Alexandru Balmoș1,2, Iudita Badea1,3, Ario Santini1,4
1 University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureş, Romania
2 Surgery Clinic No. 2, Târgu Mureş, Romania
3 Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic No.1, Târgu Mureş, Romania
4 Hon Fellow, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Despite the significant development and advancement in antibiotic therapy, life-threatening complication of infective diseases cause hundreds of thousands of deaths world. This paper updates some of the issues regarding the etiology and treatment of abdominal sepsis and summaries the latest guidelines as recommended by the Intra-abdominal Infection (IAI) Consensus (2017). Prognostic scores are currently used to assess the course of peritonitis. Irrespective of the initial cause, there are several measures universally accepted as contributing to an improved survival rate, with the early recognition of IAI being the critical matter in this respect. Immediate correction of fluid balance should be undertaken with the use of vasoactive agents being prescribed, if necessary, to augment and assist fluid resuscitation. The WISS study showed that mortality was significantly affected by sepsis irrespective of any medical and surgical measures. A significant issue is the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the clinical setting, and the reported prevalence of ESBLs intra-abdominal infections has steadily increased in Asia. Europe, Latin America, Middle East, North America, and South Pacific. Abdominal cavity pathology is second only to sepsis occurring in a pulmonary site. Following IAI (2017) guidelines, antibiotic therapy should be initiated as soon as possible after a diagnosis has been verified.
Andrei Schwartz, Evgeni Brotfain*, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, General Intensive Care Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
Progressive cardiovascular deterioration plays a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure (MOF) caused by sepsis. Evidence of various cardiac arrhythmias in septic patients has been reported in many published studies. In the critically ill septic patients, compared to non-septic patients, new onset atrial fibrillation episodes are associated with high mortality rates and poor outcomes, amongst others being new episodes of stroke, heart failure and long vasopressor usage. The potential mechanisms of the development of new cardiac arrhythmias in sepsis are complex and poorly understood. Cardiac arrhythmias in critically ill septic patients are most likely to be an indicator of the severity of pre-existing critical illness.
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