Category Archives: Case Report

Neutropenia and T-Wave Inversion as Toxin-Mediated Complications of a Streptococcal Infection

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0030

Introduction: Streptococcal infection can be responsible for multiple complications, such as toxic, septic or allergic disorders. Toxin-mediated complications (TMC) can appear during the acute phase of disease and can involve any organ, causing carditis, arthritis, nephritis, hepatitis etc.
Case presentation: The case of a young woman without a history of recurrent streptococcal tonsillitis, admitted to “Matei Balş” National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, presenting with fever, sore throat and exudative tonsillitis, is detailed. The initial test for Streptococcus pyogenes was negative. The patient had leukopenia with severe neutropenia, high values of inflammatory biomarkers and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes with inverted T waves in leads V1-4 and flattened T waves in V5-6. There were no other cardiac signs or symptoms. The patient received cefuroxime for two days. On admission, the patient was prescribed Penicillin G and dexamethasone which resulted in a rapid recovery. The leucocytes count returned to normal as did the ECG abnormalities. At the time of discharge, the antistreptolysin O titre was high.
Conclusions: The case highlights the toxin-mediated complications (TMC) of streptococcal infection which occur from the outset of the disease.

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Lethal Subarachnoid and Intracerebral Haemorrhage Associated with Temporal Arteritis. A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0028

Giant cell arteritis is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis, typically involving the superficial temporal arteries, but with possible ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications.
The case is reported of a patient with a clinical picture of giant cell arteritis, who had multiple occupational exposures to various infectious agents.
His initial favourable progress was followed by an atypical outcome. Despite immunosuppressive treatment, he developed fatal subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhages, possibly due to rupture of a microaneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery.

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Cytoreduction with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy and Renal Insufficiency Related to Diabetes Mellitus: An Anesthetic Challenge

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0027

Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) improves the prognosis in selected patients with peritoneal surface malignancies but it is an extensive procedure predisposing to major complications. Among them, renal toxicity was reported. Severe renal insufficiency is considered a contraindication for this complex procedure. We present a patient with diabetic nephropathy with renal insufficiency KDOQI 3 and peritoneal metastasis from sigmoid adenocarcinoma with a good clinical outcome after CRS with HIPEC, highlighting the anesthetic precautions considered for this particular clinical case.

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The Use of Continuous Ketamine for Analgesia and Sedation in Critically Ill Patients with Opioid Abuse: A Case Series

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0026

Managing pain and agitation in patients with opioid abuse is becoming more common in intensive care units. Tolerance to commonly used agents is often observed, leading to inadequate pain control and increased agitation. Ketamine’s unique mechanism of action and opioid-sparing effects make it an ideal agent for patients with suboptimal response to opioid therapy.
This report describes our experience using continuous ketamine infusions for analgesia and sedation in four mechanically ventilated patients with histories of opioid abuse that had suboptimal response to standard therapy. Ketamine was successful in improving analgesia and sedation in three patients while reducing the need for other analgesics and sedatives with minimal adverse effects.
Continuous ketamine infusions may be useful to facilitate mechanical ventilation in patients with histories of opioid abuse with minimal toxicity. More information is needed on the optimal dose and titration parameters.

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Repeated Bronchoscopy – Treatment of Severe Respiratory Failure in a Fire Victim

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0024

A case of respiratory failure in a domestic fire victim presenting with 1-3-degree skin burns on 10% of the total body surface, is reported. Forty-eight hours after admission to hospital, the patient developed severe respiratory failure that did not respond to mechanical ventilation. Severe obstruction of the airway had resulted from secretions and deposits of soot-forming bronchial casts. The patient required repeated bronchoscopies to separate and remove the bronchial secretions and soot deposits. An emergency bronchial endoscopic exam was crucial in the patient’s survival and management. The patient was discharged from the hospital after twenty-four days.

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Lung Abscess Remains a Life-Threatening Condition in Pediatrics – A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0023

Pulmonary abscess or lung abscess is a lung infection which destroys the lung parenchyma leading to cavitations and central necrosis in localised areas formed by thick-walled purulent material. It can be primary or secondary. Lung abscesses can occur at any age, but it seems that paediatric pulmonary abscess morbidity is lower than in adults. We present the case of a one year and 5-month-old male child admitted to our clinic for fever, loss of appetite and an overall altered general status. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory biomarkers, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, anaemia, thrombocytosis, low serum iron concentration and increased lactate dehydrogenase level. Despite wide-spectrum antibiotic therapy, the patient’s progress remained poor after seven days of treatment and a CT scan established the diagnosis of a large lung abscess. Despite changing the antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention was eventually needed. There was a slow but steady improvement and eventually, the patient was discharged after approximately five weeks.

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Reoccurrence of Bleeding of a Chronic Subdural Haematoma Following a Fall

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0020

The case of a 60-year-old patient who presented with an acute-on-chronic subdural haematoma is reported. Chronic haematoma usually remains asymptomatic, and this is considered to be an unusual course of events. Trivial or minor injury may cause the cortical bridge veins and fragile vessels in the former haematoma to rupture with concomitant reoccurrence of bleeding. Old age, repeated traumatic brain injuries, brain atrophy, antiplatelet agents and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin are considered to be the underlying conditions to cause the reoccurrence of bleeding. However, our patient did not have any of those conditions.

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The First Manifestation of a Left Atrial Myxoma as a Consequence of Multiple Left Coronary Artery Embolisms

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0018

A case of multiple embolisms in the left coronary artery as a rare first manifestation of left atrial myxoma is reported. A patient with embolic myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure was treated by percutaneous aspirations and balloon dilatations. Transesophageal echocardiography disclosed a villous myxoma with high embolic potential. Surgical resection of the tumour, suturing of a patent foramen ovale suture and an annuloplasty of the dilated tricuspid annulus was performed the third day after the admission.
Recovery of the documented left ventricular systolic function can be explained by resorption of myxomatous material. The patient was discharged ten days after the surgery.

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Raoultella ornithinolytica Diagnosed in a Neurointensive Patient. A Rare Case with Recovery without Antibiotics

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0017

Infection with Raoultella ornithinolytica is rare and normally the infection is present in patients with underlying malignancies or chronic diseases. It is normally treated with antibiotics. In this case report, a neuro-intensive patient without malignancies or other severe chronic diseases was colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa but infected with Raoultella ornithinolyca. The patient recovered without treatment with antibiotics.

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The Use of Endotoxin Adsorption in Extracorporeal Blood Purification Techniques. A Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/jccm-2017-0010

Sepsis and septic shock are major healthcare problems, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC), which standardised the approach to sepsis, was recently updated. Strategies to decrease the systemic inflammatory response have been proposed to modulate organ dysfunctions. Endotoxin, derived from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is considered a major factor in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Endotoxin adsorption, if effective, has the potential to reduce the biological cascade of Gram-negative sepsis.  We present a case of a 64-year-old man with severe Gram-negative sepsis, following purulent peritonitis secondary to rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma. To reduce the amplitude of the general effects of endotoxins we used a novel device, the Alteco® LPS Adsorber (Alteco Medical AB, Lund, Sweden), for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adsorption
The efficacy markers were: the overall haemodynamic profile, translated into decreased vasopressor requirements, the normalisation of the cardiac index, the systemic vascular resistance index combined with the lactate level and the reduction in procalcitonin (PCT) levels. A decrease in the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at twenty-four hours was demonstrated. The clinical course following treatment was favourable for the days immediately following the treatment.This was attributed to the removal of endotoxin from the systemic circulation. The patient died one week after the endotoxin removal session, developing an ischemic bowel perforation with subsequent multiple organ failures.

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